Poland - Country Commercial Guide
Market Challenges
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The IMF states that Poland’s GDP (purchasing power parity (PPP)) per capita in 2022 was $43,268.50. However, that continues to be less than Western EU countries. According to the OECD, Poland’s average household net-adjusted disposable income per capita is $23,675, less than the OECD average of $30,490 a year. There is a considerable gap between the richest and the poorest in Poland; however, income inequality is lower than in most advanced economies (OECD).

Poland’s overall commercial climate is positive. The country is open to foreign investment as a source of capital, growth, and jobs, and as a vehicle for technology transfer, R&D, and integration into global supply chains. There are some limits on foreign ownership of companies in selected strategic sectors and limits on the acquisition of real estate, especially agricultural and forest land. In March 2018, Poland adopted Sunday Trade Ban legislation, which gradually phased out Sunday retail commerce in Poland. Since 2020, the law has allowed for Sunday shopping only on the two Sundays preceding Christmas, one Sunday before Easter, and the last Sunday of January, April, June, and August of each calendar year. Some investors have expressed concern about Poland’s lack of legal transparency and predictability, noting that new tax laws and policies are sometimes introduced quickly and without broad consultation, and that the oversized role that state-owned firms play in the Polish economy could create obstacles to long-term growth (according to the Minister of State Assets, companies controlled by the state create 15% of GDP).  The European Union is conditioning the release 35 billion euro in pandemic recovery funds until the Polish government takes measures to address rule of law concerns related to the independence of the judiciary.

There are concerns that increased spending on social benefits and higher defense spending, coupled with a reduction in the retirement age and a tight labor market could constrain GDP growth going forward. Poland’s economy is projected to perform well in the next few years in part because of an anticipated cyclical increase in the use of its EU development funds and continued household spending. Nevertheless, Poland’s economic growth in is expected to be impacted by the Russia’s ongoing war in Ukraine. Slower GDP growth will be influenced by higher uncertainty, trade disruptions, Polish monetary policy, and inflation.

Poland is among global leaders for doing business. Compared to other countries, Poland ranks favorably when it comes to cross-border trading and credit access and is improving in areas such as enforcing contracts and collecting taxes. Corruption is not a widespread problem in Poland. The country ranked 45th out of 180 countries on Transparency International’s “Corruption Perception Index” in 2022.