South Africa - Country Commercial Guide
Agricultural Sector
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This  Sector covers Agribusiness and Agricultural Commodities


South Africa – Key Agribusiness Forecasts (2020-2023)

Table 1: South Africa – Key Agribusiness Forecasts (2020-2023)
Agribusiness Market Value, USDmn21,057.132,976.539,773.238,917.9

Agribusiness market value, USD, % y-o-y



Agribusiness Market Value, USD, % of GDP



Wheat self sufficiency, %


Corn self sufficiency, %129.9133.1127.8126.5
Barley self sufficiency, %88.5113.3108.9109.1
Sugar self sufficiency, %151.0126.1123.3129.0
Pork self sufficiency, %97.890.092.194.3
Beef & veal self sufficiency, %99.1101.8101.3101.4
Cotton self sufficiency, %248.7208.4262.5295.7

e/f = BMI estimate/forecast. Source: USDA, BMI

Unit:  $million

Data from Fitch Solution Industry Report South African Agribusiness Report Q4 2023

Above figures are unofficial estimates obtained from industry sources

Market: The agriculture sector in South Africa is extremely diverse compared to other countries in the sub-Saharan African region. This is mostly due to the country’s climate that ranges from dry and arid in the Karoo, mediterranean in the west and sub-tropical on the east coast. It rains in the winter months in the Western and Eastern Cape and the summer months in the interior. The variety of farming products yielded from this climate include all major grains, oilseeds, deciduous and subtropical fruits, sugar, citrus, nuts, wine, flowers and most vegetables. Livestock includes cattle, dairy, pigs, sheep, ostrich and a well-developed poultry and egg industry. This lends itself to a diverse offering of equipment both locally made and internationally imported to service these varying needs of farmers.

South Africa’s biggest crop is grain which includes barley, maize, oats, sorghum, and wheat. These contribute more than 30% to total agricultural product. There are both the larger commercial (+/- 32000) and smaller subsistence farms. Quality and cost-effective machinery, as well as the newest AgriTech are all priorities for the farming communities who continue to battle against tough headwinds in the form of droughts, high input costs and electricity constraints.

There are many value-added services in the Agribusiness sector that take the form of slaughtering, processing, preserving, canning, bottling, drying, milling, refining and packaging. South African exports are known for their exceptional quality.

According to some estimations the agricultural machinery market size is estimated at USD 0.81 billion in 2023. Some of the key players in this market are John Deere, Mahindra, Kubota, Agco, CNH

Compared to the rest of Africa, South Africa has by far the most modern, productive, and diverse agricultural economy. South Africa has a well-developed agricultural sector, which will stand the country in good stead in the face of continuing uncertainty both economically and in terms of the weather. There are many factors impacting on the industry – including credit ratings downgrade, land reform concerns, volatile exchange rate, ongoing weather concerns and rising input costs.

Forecasts show that the country’s economic growth will remain under pressure, as consumers continue to tighten their belts because of a contracted economy and higher inflation over the last year. Even though sentiment among farmers is still positive, many are showing caution regarding forth coming crops. The El Niño phenomenon, electricity shortages, need for alternate power supplies and fuel as well as input costs such as fertilizer are taking preference over new equipment purchases.

As the agricultural sector is largely export driven, it is hedged against the negative impact of a major credit downgrade, but farmers are susceptible to higher borrowing costs, depressed local demand and foreign animal and plant health import approvals. 


Sub-Sector Best Prospects                                                                     

The best prospects for U.S. suppliers, in South Africa and the region, are:

  • Tractors - tractors occupy a significant part of agriculture machinery in terms of units sold and has steadily increased over the years.
  • Combine Harvesters
  • Drone Technology
  • Balers
  • Planters
  • Precision Agriculture Equipment and Technologies
  • Sprayers
  • Irrigation
  • Storage
  • Soil Testing Equipment
  • Spare Parts and Service Facilities

Digitalization: The integration of digital technology into agriculture presents a major opportunity for Sub-Saharan Africa. The emergence of the mobile phone as a popular communication tool, coupled with internet-based solutions, could significantly boost access to financing for agricultural inputs across the value chain. Digitalization, as well as the effective use of fertilizer and seeds, will become increasingly important in unlocking agriculture prospects in Africa.  Trending technologies in agriculture include data management, machine learning, artificial intelligence, automation, and drone-based applications.

Production research and technology, in which South Africa needs to invest, is an area of opportunity for growth in agriculture and in alleviating the vulnerability of crops and livestock.

Trade Barriers: There are very few barriers to bringing new equipment to the South African market. Equipment like planters, sprayers, and tilling equipment enter duty free, provided the exact same product is not manufactured in this market.  Most of the precision agriculture equipment such as planters, self-propelled sprayers, and combine harvesters are imported from South America, Europe, and the United States; smaller implements are purchased locally.  All import and export commercial transactions require commodities on custom declarations to be classified according to an appropriate tariff heading. The tariff classification code is directly linked to the rate of duty payable on that commodity. Classification operates as part of the international Harmonized Commodity and Coding System, under the World Customs Organization (WCO) Harmonized System Convention.  Importation of all second-hand goods is subject to import control and an import permit is required.

Known U.S. brands such as Massey Ferguson, John Deere, New Holland, AGCO, and Case IH are well-entrenched and well-known for their quality in this market.

South Africa is the platform for “regional expansion,” with excellent opportunities for U.S. business in neighboring countries such as Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Mozambique, and Botswana. Second-hand tractors and equipment are also well-received in these regional markets.

Trade show: South Africa hosts NAMPO Harvest Day, the largest agricultural equipment show on the continent in Bothasville, Free State Province 14 – 17 May 2024. This outdoor show takes place in May each year and provides an excellent opportunity for U.S. firms to exhibit their equipment and technology.


South African Agricultural Machinery Association (SAAMA)

South African Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)

Fitch Solution Industry Report South African Agribusiness Report Q4 2023

For More Information

The U.S. Commercial Service Commercial Specialist for Agribusiness in South Africa can be contacted via e-mail at:

Phone: +27 (0)31 305 7600    

or visit our website:

Agricultural Commodities


South Africa is one of the most advanced and diverse economies in Africa.  With a population of almost 60 million people, it is an attractive business destination due to its growing market and relatively welcoming business environment.  South Africa also serves as an entry point to other countries in southern Africa. 

South Africa has a market-oriented agricultural economy that is highly diversified and includes the production of all the major grains (except rice), oilseeds, deciduous and subtropical fruits, sugar, citrus, wine, and most vegetables. Livestock production includes cattle, dairy, hogs, sheep, and a well-developed poultry and egg industry. Value-added activities in the sector include slaughtering, processing, and preserving of meat; processing and preserving of fruit and vegetables; dairy products; grain mill products; crushing of oilseeds; prepared animal feeds; sugar refining and cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery amongst other food products. 

The agricultural sector contributed around 10 percent to South Africa’s total export earnings in FY2021 at a value of $12.0 billion.  Citrus, wine, table grapes, corn, apples, pears, and wool accounted for the largest exports by value. South Africa also exports wool, nuts, sugar, mohair, and pears to name just a few products.

South Africa imported $7.7 billion in agricultural and food products in FY2022, which is an increase of 5 percent from FY2021, mainly due to the normalization of economic activities after the COVID-19 lockdowns.  The major products imported were palm oil ($656 million), wheat ($641 million), rice ($463 million), food mixtures ($448 million), sunflower seed ($262 million), and food preparations ($196 million), and cane sugar ($175 million).  

 In FY2022, the United States exported $263 million of agricultural products to South Africa, marginal decrease from the previous fiscal year.   Major products exported by the United States to South Africa included, poultry meat, almonds, food preparations, odoriferous mixtures, whiskies, and corn maize seed.  Other products imported by South Africa from the United States included animal feed preparations and dairy.   

USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) in Pretoria prepares more than thirty market intelligence reports for different agricultural commodities in the Southern Africa region.  FAS also prepares reports that highlight the opportunities and regulatory processes for United States agricultural exports to South Africa.  The Exporter Guide for South Africa is a good starting point for United States agricultural and food companies that view South Africa as a potential market.  Please feel free to contact the Foreign Agricultural Service in Pretoria for further information at the following address: 

Foreign Agricultural Service

U.S. Embassy


South Africa

Tel: +27 12 431-4057.

Email: agpretoria@

Sub-Sector Best Prospects                                


The grain industry (barley, maize, oats, sorghum, and wheat) is one of the largest agricultural industries in South Africa, contributing more than 30 percent to the total gross value of agricultural production. The industry comprises several key stakeholders including input suppliers, farmers, silo owners, traders, millers, bakers, research organizations, financiers, etc. The animal feed industry is an important client and role player in the grain supply chain. Around 6.0 million tons of grain and 1.6 million tons of oil cake (from imported and locally produced sunflower and soybeans) are used by the animal feed manufacturing industry in South Africa annually. . United States corn seed exports to South Africa increased by 13 percent to $12 million in FY2022.

Corn is the largest locally produced field crop, and the most important source of carbohydrates in the SADC region for animal and human consumption.  South Africa is the main corn producer in the SADC region, with an average production of around 15 million tons per annum over the past 5 years.  Local consumption of corn amounts to more than 12 million tons per annum, and surplus corn is usually exported.  Wheat is produced mainly in the winter-rainfall areas of the Western Cape and the eastern parts of the Free State with considerable annual fluctuations in production.  Average wheat production has been about 1.8 million tons a year over the past 5 years with local demand exceeding 3.5 million tons per year.  Hence South Africa is dependent on wheat imports to meet the local demand. 


Over the past 20 years, and especially after the deregulation of agricultural markets in 1997, there has been a decreasing trend in the area planted with wheat despite increasing local consumption.  Declining profit margins saw local wheat farmers scaling down wheat production and switching to other crops like canola, corn, soybeans, and increased livestock production. Furthermore, the trend in wheat production has been sporadic over the past 20 years because of unpredictable weather conditions.   Without an advance in technology or policy changes, the decreasing trend in hectares planted with wheat in South Africa will continue.   

South Africa’s wheat consumption is the highest in Southern Africa and wheat is the second most important grain commodity consumed after corn.  The annual per capita consumption of corn, in the form of a meal, is the highest at 95kg/person, followed by wheat (56kg/person) and then rice (15kg/person).  South Africa consumes around 2.4 billion loafs of bread per annum or 40 loafs of bread per person per year. Local wheat demand in MY 2023/24 is estimated at 3.7 million tons and wheat imports at 1.9 million tons. 



Table 2: Total Market Size for Wheat
Total Exports $52 million$94 million$201 million
Total Imports $473 million$466 million$641 million
Imports from the U.S. $16 million$10 million$4 million


Source: Trade Data Monitor

Web Resources on Grains

U.S. Wheat Associates has an office in Cape Town, South Africa.

Cape Town - U.S. Wheat Associates (

U.S. Grain Council has representation in Pretoria, South Africa

Middle East/Africa/Europe (Tunisia) - U.S. GRAINS COUNCIL

Alcoholic Beverages         

South Africa consumes more than 4.5 billion liters of alcoholic beverages per annum and is also an important exporter of alcoholic beverages, especially wine.  However, South Africa also imports a significant number of alcoholic beverages, especially whiskies.   Recent trends indicate that consumers are turning to new and innovative distilled spirits, including a greater prominence in previously disadvantaged areas.  South Africans’ tastes and preferences are becoming more sophisticated, and the average consumer is increasingly expecting a wider range of alcoholic products on retail shelves.  As a result, an extensive range of new imported products has become available in the market.  Openness to new products and an increasing middle class has helped to create a positive climate for the sale and promotion of United States distilled spirits.  However, price sensitivity, rather than brand loyalty dictates consumer purchasing behavior.  


Table 3: Total Market Size for Alcoholic Beverages    
Alcoholic BeveragesFY2019FY2020FY2021
Total Exports $990 million$838 million$1,045 million
Total Imports $578 million$412 million $481 million
Imports from the U.S. $20 million$13 million$18 million

Source: Trade Data Monitor


The Distilled Spirits Council of the United States can help U.S. distillers with market information and advice on how to export to South Africa ( 

Other Sub-sector Best Prospects        



Between 2000 and 2010, steady economic growth and increased average income in South Africa pushed large numbers of consumers towards protein-filled diets and convenience; as a result, meat consumption levels skyrocketed.  The per capita meat consumption in that period increased on average by more than 4 percent per annum.  Chicken meat consumption per capita grew by more than 7 percent per annum in the same period.  As South Africans’ disposable income grew, their buying behavior reflected their strong fondness for meat. Since 2010, however, a slowdown in South Africa’s economic growth also impacted the growth in meat consumption.  The per capita consumption growth rate of meat slowed down to about 1 percent per year.  Currently, South Africa consumes about 4.0 million tons of poultry, beef, lamb, and pork meat per annum.  In 2020, the South African consumer spent approximately R250 billion (US17 billion) on meat products, which represented 35 percent of total expenditure on food.  Poultry meat represents more than 60 percent of total meat consumption in South Africa with a per capita consumption of 40kg per annum.  As poultry meat is relatively inexpensive and ubiquitous, it is the most important protein source in the diet of the majority of South Africans.  This is especially true in low-income households, who constitute most consumers.

Three fundamental characteristics distinguish South Africa’s chicken meat market from many other countries.  The first characteristic is the predominant demand for bone-in (brown meat) chicken cuts compared to breast meat (white meat).  Bone-in chicken cuts represent almost 60 percent of total chicken meat demand mostly sold as “individually quick frozen” pieces in the form of low-priced 2kg and 5kg mixed packs.  Brining is the second characteristic.  Almost all locally produced frozen chicken contains brine to preserve and enhance the quality of the meat.  In 2016, the South African Department of Agriculture introduced a regulation to restrict the brined content to a maximum of 15 percent of the mass sold.  Prior to 2016, brining levels of up to 43 percent were recorded, which resulted in higher water content per package of frozen chicken meat.  The third characteristic is the relatively small demand for fresh (not frozen) chicken meat.  Fresh chicken meat represents less than 10 percent of total consumption of chicken meat in South Africa.  These characteristics reflect the predominance of a lower-income consumer base, as fresh chicken meat is usually sold at a premium over frozen and brined bone-in chicken pieces. 

Broiler meat accounts for more than 95 percent of all poultry meat imports by South Africa, with the balance largely being turkey products.  South Africa imported 373,048 tons of poultry meat in FY2022 at a value of $285 million. meat and edible offal of chickens represented the largest category of poultry meat imports, namely 52 percent or 197,597 tons, at a value of $133 million (47 percent of the total value of poultry meat imports).  The second largest category in volume is chicken cuts and edible offal (including livers) with a share of 43 percent or 162,087tons, at a value of $128 million (45 percent of the total value of poultry meat imports).  These two poultry meat product segments represent 91 percent of total poultry meat imports in quantity by South Africa.   Brazil is the leading trading partner for South Africa in terms of poultry meat, with 76 percent market share in value followed by the United States with 13 percent market share. 


Table  4: Total Market Size for Alcoholic Beverages    
Total Exports $80 million$83 million$98 million
Total Imports $313 million$363 million$285 million
Imports from the U.S. $56 million$61 million$42 million


 Source: Trade Data Monitor

Chicken bone-in portions


United States bone-in broiler meat exports to South Africa have been hampered by an anti-dumping duty that was put in place in 2000.  In 2012, the anti-dumping duty was extended for another 5 years and was set at R9.40 per kilogram.  However, in June 2015, representatives from the United States and South African poultry industries agreed on a tariff rate quota of 65,000 tons of United States bone-in chicken meat to enter South Africa without the anti-dumping duty. Notably, these bone-in chicken meat imports are still subject to a most favored nation (MFN) duty, which increased from 37 to 62 percent in March 2020.

In January 2016, the U.S. and South African governments concluded negotiations of the final health certificates, and the first shipment of United States bone-in broiler meat landed in South Africa in March.  Exports continued and as a result the United States exported about 20,000 tons of poultry meat to South Africa at a value of almost US$ 18 million in FY2016.  In FY2017, the volume increased to 74,000 tons at a historical high value of US$73 million.  Notwithstanding this improvement, South Africa again extended the anti-dumping duty in 2017 for an additional 5-year period.  The positive trend in poultry exports continued in FY2018 with the United States exporting 95,000 tons of poultry products to South Africa at a record value of $83 million.  In 2021, pursuant to the administrative guidelines, the South African Department of Agriculture raised the tariff rate quota to 69,972 tons for the 2020/21 quota year (April to March).  In FY 2021, the United States exported 67,308 tons of poultry products to South Africa at a value of $61 million.  As a result of the South African economic downturn, the United States exported 47,774 tons of poultry meat to South Africa in the FY2022 which was the lowest import since the inception of the quota.  Most (95 percent) of United States poultry exports to South Africa consist of bone-in broiler meat.

Resources on Poultry

The U.S.A. Poultry and Egg Export Council can help U.S. poultry exporters with market information and advice on how to export to South Africa (