Discusses distribution network from how products enter to final destination, including reliability of distribution systems, distribution centers, ports, etc.
The distribution sector includes all activities supplying goods and services to consumers. This includes eCommerce, retail business, hypermarkets/supermarkets and specialty stores. With over 508,000 firms, 3.4 million employees and a consolidated turnover of over $548 billion, retail distribution is an important, dynamic, highly sophisticated and competitive sector of activity in France with a versatile array of cutting-edge marketing and selling concepts. Retail industry interests are well represented by a federation of industry specific retail associations, “Conseil du Commerce de France”, that issues an Extensive Survey of Retail Trade in France in close cooperation with the French statistical agency INSEE every year.
One of the challenges for U.S. SMEs interested in breaking into the French market is dealing with highly concentrated retail distribution chains and networks, as well as occasional French global manufacturers/suppliers that have strong control over the retail networks they are using. In many sectors, independent wholesale/retail outlets are disappearing rapidly and being replaced by retail distribution chains and networks that have significant market shares in France, but also in the other neighboring European Union territories. Many of these large retail networks have extremely well-organized buying offices that have put very stringent selection processes in place for products and services distributed. High retail mark-up, ongoing competitive market innovation, and creativity combined with constantly changing theme designs are prerequisites to keep up with retail trends. Complete data on buying offices of French key retail networks (all sectors inclusive) can be acquired from Panorama Trade Dimensions. The American Embassy’s Paris U.S. Foreign Commercial Service Consumer Goods and Distribution Retail Trade Specialists, Caroline.deVilloutreys@trade.gov and Rose-Marie.Faria@trade.gov can assist U.S. firms approaching the French retail market operators.
The Retail Network Food & Non-Food
France possesses a diverse and comprehensive retail network, which increasingly resembles that of the United States, from the largest department store chains to the smallest individual proprietorships. French distribution channels are demonstrating some significant new trends that could affect how products are sold in France. Small- and medium-sized family-owned firms, which traditionally accounted for most French wholesale and retail trade, are rapidly losing ground to hypermarkets— large retail outlets carrying a wide variety of products at discounted prices. At the same time, direct marketing, Internet sales, and specialized chain stores have shown strong growth.
The food & non-food retail sector is generally defined by six types of establishments: 1) hypermarkets, 2) supermarkets, 3) hard discounters, 4) convenience, 5) gourmet centers in department stores, and 6) traditional outlets.
- Hypermarkets (Hypermarchés): Hypermarkets are defined as stores with a minimum selling area of 2,500 square meters. French hypermarkets offer 25,000-40,000 products for sale at competitive prices, of which 3,000-5,000 food items and 20,000-35,000 non-food articles. Generally located in suburbs, they cover a total sales area of 11.1 million square meters. As of 2018, there were 2,200 hypermarkets, employing over 330,000 people. The top five hypermarket companies are Leclerc, Carrefour, Auchan, Système U, Intermarché.
- Supermarkets (Supermarchés): Supermarkets are smaller versions of hypermarkets, with a selling area between 400 and 2,500 square meters. They usually carry 3,000-5,000 items, of which 500-1,500 are non-food products, and cover a total sales area of 7.4 million square meters. As of 2018, there were 5,727 supermarkets, employing over 160,000 people. The top supermarket companies are Carrefour, Intermarché, Casino and Systeme U.
- Convenience Stores (Magasins de proximité): Convenience stores are generally located in city centers of small-to-medium size towns but are now flourishing in major cities. Currently, there are more than 6,900 outlets with an average sales area of 177 square meters. Since around 2009, convenience stores have become more popular and hypermarket/supermarket chains began creating local convenience stores with their brands, such as Carrefour City, Carrefour Express, Vival, or Monop’/DailyMonop’.
- Click & Drive: Click and Drive has become popular among consumers over the past few years. Thanks to increasing internet accessibility, stores such as Le Drive Intermarché, Leclerc Drive, Carrefour Drive, Leader Drive and Auchan Drive have met the high demand for convenient shopping by offering services that allow a consumer to order groceries online that will be ready for pick-up. In 2018, there were 3,742 click and drive services. Le Drive Intermarché dominates the market with a total of 1,092 click and drive centers, followed by E. Leclerc Drive with 651. Over the past few years, the number of click and drive centers has increased tremendously and is expected to continue increasing of the coming years. Almost 90% of large hypermarkets propose a click and drive option.
- Department Stores (Grands magasins): The number of Department stores has been declining over the past few years and in 2018 there were 94 department stores employing over 20,000. Paris has the most department stores of any French city with five of the ten top-selling stores located within the city. Department stores have lost some market share in all areas except in the medium-to-high price range. A unique feature of the French department store is that many non-food products are sold by the branded-mark’s own sales staff which can account for up to 20% of the store’s total sales force. Some department stores in Paris such as Galeries Lafayette, Au Printemps, and Le Bon Marché have gourmet food sections. Although they do not account significantly for total food sales in France, they set the quality standard for product presentation.
- Discounters (Magasins discount): Compared to hyper/supermarkets, hard discount stores offer a smaller range of goods for lower prices. At the end of 2018, there were 3,565 hard discount stores in France. The top four hard-discount companies are Lidl, Aldi, Leader Price (Casino). Despite the economic crisis, the hard discount stores did not gain substantive market shares and decreased in number of stores. Conventional supermarkets/hypermarkets have heavily stocked their low prices shelves in order to hinder the hard discount expansion.
- Large Specialized Stores (Grandes surfaces spécialisées): Large specialized stores offer an extensive choice of goods in a specific category at a competitive price and with an emphasis on customer service. This dynamic sector included over 13,800 stores, including such store categories as toys, health and beauty, gardening, and media/books/music. Textiles are the most common (3,175), followed by beauty/heath stores (2,513) and do-it-yourself equipment stores (2,220).
- Multi-Channel Retail Groups (Groupes de distribution multicanaux) : The distinctions made above between hypermarket chains, supermarket chains, etc., are becoming blurred. In recent years, major multi-channel retail groups owning chains of different types of stores have emerged. Pinault-Printemps and Nouvelles Galeries Réunies fall into this category, because they own chains of specialty and convenience stores.
- Traditional Retail Food Outlets (Magasins de détails traditionnels) : Traditional outlets include a broad array of establishments, from corner grocery stores, bakeries, and neighborhood butcher shops, to open air markets, to frozen and gourmet food stores. The aggressive expansion of mass distribution outlets threatens these traditional outlets, which account for some 20% of the country’s total retail food distribution. To survive, these outlets must have flexible store hours, product variety and better quality, and special services such as home delivery.
- Gas Station-Marts (Boutiques de stations d’essence) : Gasoline companies, having lost about 60% of their gas sales to hypermarkets, have equipped their gas stations with small, self-service food stores. These outlets are frequently used for stop-gap purchases and accounted for about 1% of French food sales.
- Central Buying Offices (Centrales d’achats) : In addition to contacting the largest store chains listed above, introducing products via central buying agencies is an excellent distribution method. A complete list of French central buying agencies, the Atlas de la Distribution, is from:
L.S.A - Libre-Service Actualités (Groupe GISI)
Tel: +33(0) 184.108.40.206.78
Mass retail distribution Directory:
Tel: +33(0) 220.127.116.11.50
Fax: +33(0) 18.104.22.168.51
Alternatively, search the Commerce Department’s Market Research Library, available from: Market Intelligence under Country and Industry Market Reports.
Using an Agent or Distributor
U.S. firms entering into agent/distributorship/franchise agreements with French firms should ensure that the agreements they put into place are in accordance with EU and French legislation as outlined in the French Code du Commerce.
Key link: Code du Commerce
Another good source of information is the document prepared by the Business France Agency on Doing Business in France.
Information is also available from a number of business organizations such as Business France, the American Chamber of Commerce in France, the European-American Chamber of Commerce in France, and the French-American Chamber of Commerce in the United States. As a member state of the European Union, EU directives must be transposed into French legislation and implemented locally.
Companies wishing to use distribution, franchising, and agency arrangements need to ensure that the agreements they put into place are in accordance with EU and member state national laws. Council Directive 86/653/EEC establishes certain minimum standards of protection for self-employed commercial agents who sell or purchase goods on behalf of their principals. The Directive establishes the rights and obligations of the principal and its agents, the agent’s remuneration, and the conclusion and termination of an agency contract. It also establishes the notice to be given and indemnity or compensation to be paid to the agent. U.S. companies should be particularly aware that according to the Directive, parties may not derogate from certain requirements. Accordingly, the inclusion of a clause specifying an alternate body of law to be applied in the event of a dispute will likely be ruled invalid by European courts.
Key Link: Council Directive
The European Commission’s Directorate General for Competition enforces legislation concerned with the effects on competition in the internal market of “vertical agreements.” U.S. small- and medium-sized companies (SMEs) are exempt from these regulations because their agreements likely would qualify as “agreements of minor importance,” meaning they are considered incapable of impacting competition at the EU level but useful for cooperation between SMEs. Generally speaking, companies with fewer than 250 employees and an annual turnover of less than €50 million are considered small- and medium-sized. The EU has additionally indicated that agreements that affect less than 10% of a particular market are generally exempted (Commission Notice 2014/C 291/01).
Key Link: Commission Notice 2014/C 291/01
The EU also looks to combat payment delays. The new Directive 2011/7/EU, which replaced the current law in March 2013, covers all commercial transactions, both in the public and private sector within the EU, primarily dealing with the consequences of late payment. Transactions with consumers, however, do not fall within the scope of this Directive. Directive 2011/7/EU entitles a seller who does not receive payment for goods and/or services within 30 days of the payment deadline to collect interest (at a rate of 8% above the European Central Bank rate) as well as €40 as compensation for recovery of costs. For business-to-business transactions, a 60-day period may be negotiated subject to conditions. The seller may also retain the title to goods until payment is completed and may claim full compensation for all recovery costs.
Key Link: Directive 2011/7/EU
Companies’ agents and distributors can take advantage of the European Ombudsman when victim of inefficient management by an EU institution or body. Complaints can be made to the European Ombudsman only by businesses and other bodies with registered offices in the EU. The Ombudsman can act upon these complaints by investigating cases in which EU institutions fail to act in accordance with the law, fail to respect the principles of good administration, or violate fundamental rights. In addition, SOLVIT, a network of national centers, offers online assistance to citizens and businesses who encounter problems with transactions within the borders of the single market.
Establishing an Office
Establishing a subsidiary/branch office in France is advisable for some industries. The French government encourages the formation of new enterprises. In conjunction with the Paris Chamber of Commerce, chambers throughout the country and business incubators, the French government offers extensive counseling and assistance in setting up an office in France. Detailed “how to” guides are available from the various chambers of commerce and numerous American consulting firms present in France.
Key Links: Doing-Business in France
Chambers of Commerce and Industries ; (Local Centers for Setting-up a Company)
U.S. businesses looking to franchise within the European Union will likely find that the market is quite robust and friendly to franchise systems in general. There are a number of laws that govern the operation of franchises within the EU, but these laws are fairly broad and generally do not constrain the competitive position of U.S. businesses. The potential franchiser should look not only at the EU regulations, but also at the local laws concerning franchising. The US franchisor should increase vigilance in the drafting of franchise agreements, in particular by avoiding provisions which arguably “have an effect on the organization of work and working conditions” such as fixed working day and week schedules or common uniforms for all franchisees’ employees, and thus could potentially trigger a request for establishment of a social dialogue body.
Legal Issues in Franchising
France is the first country outside of the United States of America and Canada to regulate franchising, with the adoption of the so-called “Loi Doubin” (Law Number 89-1008 of 31 December 1989). Loi Doubin is a general disclosure law that applies to franchising, stipulating that a disclosure needs to be provided at least 20 days before signing an agreement or paying any money. Although the law has fewer specific disclosure requirements than other disclosure laws, the general obligations also include a requirement to provide a franchisee with a description of the general and local market conditions for all franchised products and services as well as the outlook for development of the market, which is a singular requirement of France. In addition to the enumerated disclosures, the Loi Doubin requires the disclosure of all information necessary to assess the business experience of the franchisor and its management.
The franchise agreement is more specific than the Franchise Disclosure Document about the terms of the relationship between the franchisor and franchisee. The franchise agreement includes information about the franchise system, such as the use of trademarks and products, territory, rights and obligations of the parties: standards, procedures, term (duration) of the franchise, payments made by the franchisee to the franchisor, termination and/or the right to transfer the franchise, training, assistance, and advertising. The franchise agreement is the legal, written document that governs the relationship and specifies the terms of the franchise purchase. A prospective franchisee should closely review the franchise agreement and consult with a professional advisor, such as an attorney or an accountant, before making a final decision.
Opportunities for U.S. Companies
A wide variety of American franchises such as McDonald’s, Starbucks and Five Guys are enjoying success in France, which proves that the French market is open to foreign franchises. More information on specific legislation can be found on the website of the European Franchise Federation
The French franchise sector ranks first in Europe in terms of sales and has doubled over the last ten years. Although very competitive with 2.049 franchisors and 78,218 franchisees, the French market offers many opportunities for innovative U.S. franchises. In 2019 the French franchise market employed over 757,000 people (direct and indirect jobs). 7% of franchises operating in France are foreign, of which 22% are American. In 2019, total franchising sales were estimated at $79.58 billion (€67,80 billion). The potential remains for U.S. franchisors to explore additional sectors, such as gourmet fast-food, personal service, automotive/car, hair salon/beauty services. However, it is important to note that for the past 30 years, direct investment or area development expansion methods have proven more successful in France than the traditional Master Franchise model. France is also:
• A large market: the 7th largest economy in the world, the 2nd largest economy in the European Union after Germany. the third largest income in the world from tourism and the most visited country in the world. America is the first country of foreign origin for franchises that have been established in France
• A convenient central location in Europe
• Known for its high-quality workforce
Beyond regulations, there are several things a company should consider before entering the French market:
- Some American concepts are sometimes not suitable to the French market. They need to adapt to local tastes and cultural norms. Also, high European rents and labor costs can hurt the business. For example, a food franchise often closes between 2:00-7:00pm to avoid the high labor costs and low food traffic.
- The language barriers, as documents provided by the franchisors are very often in English, while the DIP and contract must be written in French.
Some Americans are more interested in master franchises, which can be complicated in France. While master franchising typically allows the franchisor to shift a significant portion of the foreign development costs onto the shoulders of the master franchisee, if the franchisor is not prepared or able to invest sufficiently in the expansion, disaster is around the corner.
The most important franchise trade show takes place each year in March in Paris:
Franchise Expo Paris is the international hub connecting investors from 83 countries with the most renowned franchisors looking to expand their concept worldwide.
72% of the visitors state they are there to learn how to establish a business and become a franchisee.
Product safety testing and certification is mandatory for the EU market. U.S. manufacturers and sellers of goods must perform due diligence in accordance with mandatory EU legislation prior to exporting.