Estonia - Country Commercial Guide
Agricultural Sector
Last published date:


Estonia’s food market has potential for a range of high-value product imports, particularly for middle and higher-income demographics, the tourism sector, and Estonia’s growing expatriate community. Consolidation among retail outlets through investment by large Scandinavian and Baltic grocery chains developed quickly and may provide new opportunities for exporters. Products targeted by the local restaurant industry like fish and seafood, nuts, wine, and distilled spirits are growing in popularity.  There are long established consumer preferences for domestic fresh products which have short shelf lives and are free of additives.  Although Estonian consumers remain price-sensitive, they are increasingly interested in organic foods.  Younger consumers are also interested in new products.  Estonia has a food and agricultural trade surplus with the United States and, according to the Estonian Statistical Office, it is a net food exporter.  Beverage products, meat products, horticulture, coffee, tea, jellies and jams, and feed grains are important imports.  U.S. exports with strong market potential in Estonia include wood products, fish (pollock, hake, roe, surimi), tree nuts (shelled almonds and walnuts), dried fruit (cranberries, blueberries, prunes), wine, and distilled spirits.  Estonian food exports include dairy products, meat, fish, and beverages. Important Estonia exports to the United States include forest products, cheeses, frozen fish, and preparations, as well as starch, glues, and cotton articles. 

Since Estonia’s accession to the EU in 2004, it has harmonized its tariff rates with the EU on most food products.  Exporters should first examine whether their products have EU market access. Some commodities such as meat, poultry, dairy, corn, rice, fresh fruit, and various processed products face special requirements or even nontariff barriers.

Sub-sector Prospects for Agricultural Products:  

  • Tree Nuts (Consumer Oriented Product) 
  • Hardwood Lumber (Forest Products) 
  • Fish Products 

Leading Sub-Sectors  

1. Tree Nuts 

U.S. tree nuts, primarily almonds and walnuts, are increasingly popular in confectionary, home baking, and snack food production.  Spain is the leading competitor for U.S. exporters in Estonia.  

Commodity Group:                                   

Harmonized Schedule Code(s):                 HS 0802 

Value in US$1,000 

Table 1: Total Market Size for Tree Nuts
 Year 2020 2021  2022 2023 f. 
Total Imports 10,044 8,567 7,4908,000 
Total Imports from U.S. 1,638   2,445 1,9852,000 

f. forecast 

2. Forest Products 

Estonia is a leading manufacturer of wood furniture for the European market, particularly for Scandinavia.  Estonia imported $1,075 million of wood and wood products in 2022, mainly from Finland and to a lesser extent from Russia and Latvia. U.S. wood product exports to Estonia are mostly ash and oak sawn or chipped lumber products. 

Commodity Group:                                  Wood and Articles of Wood 

Harmonized Schedule Code(s):                 HS 44 

Value in US$1,000 

Table 2: Total Market Size for Forest Products 
 Year 2020 2021 2022  2023 f. 
Total Imports 666,297 1,136,990 1,075,342 1,500,000 
Total Imports from U.S. 10,287 12,365 23,148 25,000 

 f. forecast 

3. Seafood (Alaska pollock, hake and caviar) 

Fish is an important part of the Estonian diet.  Estonian consumers are more actively seeking out product information regarding fish and seafood.   Estonia’s growing seafood processing industry will continue to offer sales opportunities for U.S. exporters, particularly for Alaskan pollock and fish roe.  


Commodity Group:                                  Fish and Fish Products 

Harmonized Schedule Code(s):                 HS 03 

Value in US$1,000 

Table 2: Total Market Size for Fish and Fish Products 
 Year 2020 2021  2022 2023 f. 
Total Imports 123,083 144,442 162,235 170,000 
Total Imports from U.S. 3,608 3,843 3,727 4,000 

f. forecast 


The USDA attaché provides regular updates on market opportunities, new policy developments, and other information regarding the local food industry. Some standard reports include the Retail Market Report, Exporter Guide, Food Service Report, and market briefs on select products.   

Trade Data 

Please refer to: The USDA Foreign Agricultural Service’s Global Agricultural Trade System (GATS).  GATS includes international trade statistics on agricultural, fish, forest, and textile products, dating from the inception of the Harmonized coding system in 1989 to present. 


Information on agricultural trade barriers is available from the U.S. Mission to the EU Foreign Agriculture Service.  

The USDA Foreign Agricultural Service Regional Office in Warsaw covers Estonia.