it is important to have an overall strategy to protect your IP. Second, IP may be protected differently in Serbia than in the United States. Third, rights must be registered and enforced in Serbia under local laws. For example, your United States trademark registrations, design or utility patent titles will not protect you in Serbia without further administrative procedures in the corresponding regional (EU) or local levels.
Most copyrighted works created in the United States will be automatically protected in Serbia from the moment of creation or publication according to international agreements. However, the extension of protection will vary according to the laws of Serbia. Protection against unauthorized use will vary depending on the national laws of each country.
Serbia is a first-to-file country for patents, i.e. the first person or entity to register the patent becomes the title holder. Similarly, most trademark and design rights -similar to a design patent- are based on a first-to-file registration system. So, you should consider how to obtain patent, design, or trademark protection before introducing your products or services into the Serbian market. Better yet, you should consider having an IP strategy for the whole world even before making your IP public in any country, to ensure that you do not lose the right outside the United States.
A patent registration can be directly obtained from the patent office of Serbia, or a bundle of patent registrations for a range of European countries, including Serbia, that are members of the European Patent Office (EPO) (note: Serbia is a member of the EPO), can be obtained from the EPO through a simplified process. A registration for a trademark or design can be obtained at the corresponding IP office. There are also other international registration systems like the Patent Cooperation Treaty for patents or the Madrid Protocol for trademarks, that could be useful to facilitate the protection of your IP in many countries of the world, including Serbia.
It is vital that companies understand that intellectual property rights are primarily private rights and that the United States government cannot enforce them for private individuals in Serbia. It is the responsibility of the rights holders to register, protect, and enforce their rights where relevant, retaining their own counsel and advisors. Companies may wish to seek advice from local legal counsel or IP consultants who are experts in Serbian law. The U.S. Commercial Service can provide a list of local lawyers upon request.
While the United States government stands ready to assist, there is little that can be done if the rights holders have not taken these fundamental steps necessary to secure and enforce their IP in a timely fashion. Moreover, in many countries rights holders who delay enforcement of their rights may find that their rights have been eroded or abrogated due to legal doctrines such as statutes of limitations, laches, estoppel, or unreasonable delay in prosecuting a lawsuit. In no instance should United States government advice be regarded as a substitute for the responsibility of a rights holder to promptly pursue its case.
It is always advisable to conduct due diligence on potential partners. A good partner is an important ally in protecting IP rights. Consider carefully whether to permit your partner to register IP rights on your behalf. Doing so may create a risk that your partner will list itself as the IP owner and fail to transfer the rights should the partnership end. Keep an eye on your cost structure and reduce the margins and the incentive of would-be bad faith actors. Projects and sales in Serbia require constant attention. Work with legal counsel familiar with Serbian laws to create a solid contract that includes non-compete clauses and confidentiality/non-disclosure provisions.
It is also recommended that small and medium-size companies understand the importance of working together with trade associations and organizations to support efforts to protect IP and stop counterfeiting. There are a number of these organizations, in both Serbia and the U.S., including Local American Chambers of Commerce.
A wealth of information on protecting IP is freely available to United States rights holders. Some excellent resources for companies regarding intellectual property include the following:
For information about patent, trademark, or copyright issues — including enforcement issues in the United States and other countries — call the STOP! Hotline: 1-866-999-HALT or visit https://www.stopfakes.gov/.
For more information about registering trademarks, obtaining designs or utility patents (both in the United States as well as in foreign countries), contact the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) at: 1-800-786-9199.
For more information about registering copyrighted works in the United States, contact the U.S. Copyright Office at: 1-202-707-5959.
For more information about how to evaluate, protect, and enforce intellectual property rights and how these rights may be important for businesses, please visit the “Resources” section of the STOPfakes website. For information on obtaining and enforcing intellectual property rights and market-specific IP Toolkits visit: STOPfakes IPR Toolkits. The toolkits contain detailed information on protecting and enforcing IP in specific markets and also contain contact information for local IPR offices abroad and United States government officials available to assist SMEs.
For more information, please see the webpage on Protecting Intellectual Property.
The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) publishes the Special 301 Report on an annual basis. This report provides a review of IP protection and enforcement for United States trading partners around the world. See 2022 edition of the Report.
The U.S. Department of Commerce has positioned IP attachés in key markets around the world. Here is the contact information for the Europe-based IP attachés:
Serving the EU, EFTA, and UK
Serving Central Eurasia and the Western Balkans
World Trade Organization (WTO) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (based in Geneva, Switzerland)
For more information, contact ITA’s Office of Standards and Intellectual Property (OSIP) Director, Stevan Mitchell at Stevan.Mitchell@trade.gov.
For additional information, please visit State Department’s Investment Climate Statement page.