Romania - Country Commercial Guide

This is a best prospect industry sector for this country. Includes a market overview and trade data.

Last published date: 2022-07-27


Romania’s energy sector is key to its evolving economy and security policy. The country finds itself having a diverse energy mix based on natural resources such as gas, nuclear power, and renewable energy. Romania plans to complete Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Units 3 and 4 and to extend the lifetime of Unit 1 (projects valued at 8.5-9.5 billion USD) and be at the forefront of small modular reactor (SMR) deployment in Europe, where Romania will develop an additional 6.9 GW capabilities compared to 2015 level. The National Recovery and Resilience Plan calls for phasing out coal and lignite by 2032 and replacing them with renewable and low-carbon energy sources, including clean hydrogen.

NRRP- National Recovery and Resilience Plan

In the context of the COVID-19 crisis, the European Commission established a Recovery and Resilience Mechanism to give effective and meaningful financial help to Member States to accelerate implementation of sustainable reforms and related public investment.

Regulation (EU) 2021/241 of the European Parliament and the Council of 12 February 2021 approved the mechanism.

The purpose of the NRRP is to accelerate implementation of sustainable reforms and related public investments in order to improve the state of the national economy following the COVID-19 crisis, to promote economic growth and job creation necessary for labor inclusion, and to support green and digital transition in order to promote sustainable growth.

Goals of the NRRP include:

- promoting Romania’s development by implementing critical programs and projects that boost resilience, crisis readiness, flexibility, and growth potential through major reforms and key investments with monies provided to Romania under the existing structure.

- attracting funds made available by the European Union through the NextGenerationEU instrument in order to meet reform and investment milestones and targets.

The green transition through NRRP aims to address the main challenges of the Romanian energy sector in terms of decarbonization and air pollution by promoting electricity production from renewable energy, as well as energy efficiency and future technologies.

The Energy Component of the NRRP has a budget of approximately 1.7 billion USD.

Beneficiaries (both direct and indirect) are Small and Medium Enterprises, major companies, local public authorities (LPAs), and administrative-territorial units (ATUs). Source: NRRP Slides

The Modernization Fund

The Modernization Fund is derived from revenue from the auctioning of 2% of the total certificates allocated to Member States under the EU-ETS scheme for the period 2021-2030. Romania is one of five states (Croatia, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia) that opted for additional shares to be transferred to the Modernization Fund by beneficiary Member States.

Estimated allocation is of $15.7 billion, out of which up to 100% is dedicated to relevant priority investment costs and up to 30% for investments that do not fall into the priority areas but are able to demonstrate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. It aids 10 recipient member states, including Romania, towards achieving energy and climate goals by target year of 2030. The European Commission said in June 2022 that it will achieve its 2030 energy and climate commitments. Investments of $1,462.6 million were made in Romania.

The modernization fund supports 45 investment proposals in the following fields: production of renewable energy, modernization of energy networks, energy efficiency in the energy sector, in industry, in buildings, and in transportation, as well as the substitution of coal production with low-intensity fuels with low carbon emissions.

An example of an investment supported by the fund in Romania is the construction of eight photovoltaic parks and two combined cycle gas turbines, which will replace lignite with renewable energy and gas sources for electricity generation and modernization of electricity networks.

Generation of Energy

The main electricity generation companies are state-owned:

  1. Cernavoda nuclear power plant (2x700 MW installed capacity for units 1+2, ensuring approximately 20% of the total energy mix,
  2. 208 hydropower and pumping plants – 6.444 GW installed capacity ensuring more than 25% of energy mix, and
  3. Six coal-fired power plants – two within the Hunedoara Energy Complex, currently under insolvency that intend to provide 1-3% of the national energy mix; and four within Oltenia Energy Complex, providing 20% of national electricity production.

In December 2021, Romania produced 5,317 GWh of electricity.

Transmission of Energy

The electricity transmission system in Romania and the interconnection system with its neighboring countries is managed and operated by the majority state-owned Transelectrica SA company. They also manage the market operation, the grid and market infrastructure development, and the security of the national energy transmission system

Romania Transmission System
Romania Transmission System

Source: Transelectrica

The state-owned company Transelectrica oversees the national electrical system, the Romanian electricity transmission network, and the cross-border transmission capacities. Activities related to generating, distribution, and supply were totally segregated from transmission system and system operational services. After undergoing several voltage level changes, the power created travels from the producer to the consumer via overhead and/or underground power cables. The distribution network is responsible for high (110 kV), average (20 kV), and low voltages (0.4 kV), whereas the transmission network is responsible for the greatest voltages (220 and 400 kV).

Supply and Distribution of Energy

By end of 2021, five major electricity suppliers were active in Romania:

  1. Enel Energie Muntenia
  2. Enel Energie
  3. CEZ (currently Macquarie Infrastructure and Real Assets – MIRA)
  4. Electrica, covering different regions.
  5. E.On

In July 2021, there were 176 licensed gas suppliers and licensed electricity suppliers, out of which 14 were licensed for both.

In 2019, over nine million users were connected to power grids through eight licensed distribution system operators (54.72% in urban areas):

  1. e-Distributie Muntenia
  2. e-Distributie Banat
  3. e-Distributie Dobrogea
  4. Distribuție Energie Oltenia
  5. Delgaz Grid
  6. SDEE Muntenia Nord
  7. SDEE Transilvania Nord
  8. SDEE Transilvania Sud

State-owned enterprises are the primary producers of power. In 2021, they consisted of:

  • Nuclearelectrica
  • Hidroelectrica
  • Termoelectrica
  • Hunedoara Energy Complex (CEH)
  • Oltenia Energy Complex (CEO)

Leading Sub-Sectors

Oil & Gas

Romania was the first nation to employ natural gas for industrial purposes and has the largest natural gas market in Central Europe. As the second-largest gas producer in the European Union with sizeable reserves, including those recently found in the Black Sea, Romania is the nation in the region with the lowest reliance on imported natural gas.

Romania is strategically placed between well-developed Central European markets and Southeast European supply sources. Romania has warehouses and connections with Bulgaria, Ukraine, Hungary, and Moldova.

Romania supports a long-term perspective of natural gas in the European Green Pact because it forecasts that this resource will remain an important tool in changing the energy sector and transitioning to a more sustainable and carbon-free economy.

In addition to the Neptune Deep, Romania can diversify its energy supplies with the Midia Natural Gas Development Project of Black Sea Oil & Gas. Over 14,200 kilometers of pipes and gas connections transport natural gas. Romania’s natural gas distribution network has increased four times in the last three decades, from 10,772 kilometers in 1990 to 43,563 kilometers in 2020, according to data synthesized by the National Institute of Statistics (INS). The average annual growth rate is 4.8%, with the highest advances over the previous year recorded in 1995 (11.58%) and 1994 (11.19%). The pace has slowed since 2005, with an average annual growth rate of 3.32%, with the best performance in 2007 (6.14%). The length of the natural gas distribution network increased by 3% in 2020, compared to 2019, and reached 43,563 kilometers, for about 6.5 million customers, with an average annual consumption of about nine billion cubic meters.

Ensuring as many players as possible, suppliers, and end customers have access to the competitive market eventually increases its share. Customers can choose their supplier and arrange direct sales-purchase agreements. Main offshore titleholders in the Black Sea are Black Sea Oil & Gas (BSOG), whose first molecule of Romanian natural gas from the Black Sea will be extracted from the Aurora field by mid-2022. Also, Romania stands to become a regional gas provider should its total extracted gas exceed domestic needs.

Other title holders are ExxonMobil, Lukoil, OMV Petrom, Petromar Resources, Petro Ventures, Gas Plus Dacia, and Romgaz SA.

Since 2001, 10% of Romania’s natural gas market has been open to industrial consumers, reaching 100% in January 2007. The natural gas market was liberalized for residential consumers in July 2007. According to Directive 2009/73 / EC, the national natural gas market is now 100% open.

Onshore natural oil & gas production in Romania is provided by traditional producers such as Romgaz SA, OMV Petrom SA, Amromco Energy SRL, Mazarine Energy Romania, Raffles Energy SRL, and Stratum Energy Romania.

Romania’s Ministry of Energy supports a strategic partnership to acquire LNG energy from Azerbaijan, through a Southern Corridor pipeline known as BRUA (Bulgaria-Romania-Ukraine-Austria) July 2022, the European Commission agreed with Government of Azerbaijan to double imports of its natural gas by 2027, as part of the European Union’s push to increase non-Russian energy supplies.

LNG at the Black Sea

The Black Sea has no LNG terminal; the position held by Turkey on allowing LNG tankers to pass through Istanbul and the Bosphorus Strait plays a large part. Romania had planned to build a terminal onshore at Port of Constanta. Indeed, since Romania’s priority was to have completed the BRUA pipeline in 2020 and to start gas production in the Black Sea (see above – BSOG production), the Constanta LNG project could come online in 2026, yet is still awaiting private investment.

This is also based on the Development Plan of the Gas National Transport System SNT for 2020-2029, drawn up by the system operator, Transgaz state-owned company.

Natural gas is seen as an important resource in the process of transition to clean energy, and Romania has large potential for LNG developments in its Black Sea territories. With infrastructure investments and the development of competitive market mechanisms, Romania can succeed in becoming a major European LNG supplier and transport hub.

Nuclear Sector

Nuclear energy will continue to play an important role in Romania’s energy mix for years to come.

Romania has a long tradition and rich nuclear expertise gained through the construction, commissioning, and safe operation of Cernavoda NPP Units 1 and 2 and other nuclear facilities such as the heavy water plant, the nuclear fuel plant, research institutes, engineering and advanced physics centers, and education. Romania currently has one nuclear power plant, Cernavodă, with two operational reactors; and two more under construction (pressurized heavy water reactors of CANDU 6 design (CANadian Deuterium Uranium), each with a gross output of 706.5 MWe. The two reactors in operation supply approximately 20% of total energy production.

Small Modular Reactor technology will help Romania and other EU member nations achieve national decarbonization goals by promoting a fair transition to carbon neutrality. Romania is involved in SMR deployment in Europe, drawing on the expertise of Romanian experts while ensuring that the move away from coal is accompanied by new jobs, commercial possibilities, and local development.

Romania has expedited its decarbonization goals to 2030 from 2050. Renewable energy sources, nuclear power (via completion of Cernavoda NPP Units 3 and 4, refurbishment of Unit 1, and deployment of SMRs), and natural gas, as a transitional source, form the backbone of Romania’s energy transformation. (slides).

Coal Sector

In the first five months of 2020, the coal production decreased by 41%, while production of oil dropped by 20% according to National Statistics Institute. This is due to the pandemic-induced worldwide crisis.

The role of traditional fuel such as oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium in the energy mix is currently being reconsidered/renegotiated according to European Union-led new context and trends (EU Green Deal). Romania produces pit coal and lignite and maintains several coal-fired powerplants, all needing upgrades in the immediate future in order to comply with European Commission guidelines. (Refer to list above of currently operating plants).

Renewable Energy

In order to reach its 2030 renewables target of 30.7%, Romania plans to add around 7 GW of new capacity, of which around 3.7 GW is intended to be solar projects, according to the plan. In terms of energy consumption, in 2019, little over of 24% energy consumption originated from renewable energy sources, placing the country in 10th place in the EU and above the union’s average level.

The Romanian Ministry of Energy has launched a tender for the deployment of 950 MW of renewable energy capacity. The government has allocated a budget of €457.7 million ($506 million) for the procurement exercise, which will be open to wind and solar projects, with the possibility of links to storage. Around €372.7 million of the total will be devoted to projects exceeding 1MW in size and €75 million to wind and solar plants with a capacity between 200kW and 1MW.

Romanian authorities will grant a rebate of €750,000 per MW installed to PV projects with a power of 200kW to 1MW and of €425,000 per megawatt installed to solar arrays over 1MW. For wind power, rebates are €1.3 million and €650,000 for the two project typologies, respectively. Selected projects must begin commercial operations in June 2024.

Romania is also supporting rooftop photovoltaic (PV) deployment via its program called Casa Verde Fotovoltaice (green PV home) for residential solar installations, under the national net metering regime. According to the International Renewable Energy Agency, Romania had 1.39 GW of solar installed by the end of 2020.

In 2020, electricity production in Romania was comprised of 12.4% wind power, 3.4% from photovoltaic solar panels, while 27.6% of the electricity production was coming from hydropower. In total, renewable energy production (wind, photovoltaic and biomass) amounted to 16%.

According to the country’s National Institute of Statistics, energy output in Romania climbed by 5.3% in 2021 to 59 TWh, with 38% thermal, 29% hydro, 19% nuclear, 11% wind, and 3% solar, while imports increased by 6.7%to 8.1 TWh. Electricity consumption climbed by 4.2% to 55.7 TWh, while exports increased by 23% to 5.9 TWh.

Romania seeks to derive more of its energy needs from renewable sources. The country is seen as a fast-growing market for wind energy in the Southeast European region, with installed wind generation capacity skyrocketing from as little as 7 MW in 2007 to 3,029 MW in 2019.

In July 2021, approximately 50% of generated power had renewable resources: hydro power at above 34%, wind above 15%, photo-voltaic above 7%, and biomass above 0.5%.

In March 2021, OMV Petrom announced that they will invest EUR 250 mln. in a new bioethanol plant in Romania. OMV Petrom, Southeastern Europe’s largest integrated energy firm, also reports it will generate sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) at the Petrobrazi refinery, by coprocessing locally produced rapeseed oil. In June 2022, they announced first test-run volumes. The company’s stated goal is that by 2030 they will have an annual combined production of SAF and HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil) of about 450,000 tons.

Other investing perspectives are upcoming as well. Romania has promising biomass potentials and several ongoing projects are focusing on its monetization. However, there are some concerns regarding the sustainability of Romanian biomass (conversion of primary production for energy purposes, partially driven by the growing biogas production). In recent years, Romania increased its production of liquid biofuels, mostly on the account of biogas, conventional biofuel and biodiesel, with installed capacities for approx. 80 Mt/y.

Romanian Association for Wind Energy (RWEA) launched RESInvest, a program dedicated to localization of a value chain for renewable energy by encouraging local production of renewables technology and creation of investment opportunities based on EU funded capacity of 3,000 MW. RWEA foresees relocation of important sector companies to Romania, manufacturing equipment for renewable energy installations, training of qualified personnel for the operation, and maintenance and repair centers. RWEA states that Romania could become a know-how hub based on national research and innovation plans and on adjacent technological concepts such as storage, hydrogen, transport and digitization.


Power Production and Distribution

American companies can find opportunities for their equipment, expertise, technologies, design and construction, installation, upgrading, maintenance, and repair services in electrical power systems, products and services related to energy efficiency, smart grid, power distribution, power and gas storage, and refurbishment/construction of power generation capacities.

In Romania, as of June 2022 the installed power in electricity production capacities was:

- 36.3% Water

- 16.9% Coal

- 16.4% Wind

- 14.3% Hydrocarb

- 7.7% Nuclear

- 7.6% Solar

- 0.8% Biomass and related

Oil and Gas

As reported in the national transport system operator (or “SNT”, Romanian acronym) Transgaz’s Investment and Development Plan 2020-2029, there are several possible strategic investment projects on the horizon:

  • BRUA (see above, pertaining to the Romanian part of the pipeline)
  • New developments tied to Black Sea extracted gas
  • Interconnection of SNT to a future LNG terminal by the Black Sea (to be built by 2026; interconnection of pipes T1 and T2 to the terminal)
  • Regassification installation by the Black Sea, to take over liquified gas imported with specialized ships and to prepare the gas for the entry into Transgaz SNT pipelines
  • Modernization of stations Isaccea and Negru Voda (for exports and imports for Bulgaria and Ukraine, via T2 and T3 pipes)
  • Onshore and Black Sea offshore fields development, operation, and maintenance: the discovery of new gas reserves in the Black Sea basin offers opportunities for companies with expertise in drilling, transmission, refining, and retrofitting existing facilities.


In this sector, possible strategic investment projects on the horizon include Cernavoda Nuclear Plant (maintenance and refurbishment for active reactor 1) and construction of two new reactors (‎2 × 700 MW; total estimated value approx. $8 billion).

In June 2020, the Romanian Government canceled a related MOU signed with a China-based company. The law to ratify an Intergovernmental Agreement between Romania and the US regarding cooperation on Cernavoda nuclear-energy projects and civil nuclear energy was promulgated in July 2021. The agreement targets several fields of cooperation such as: Units 3 and 4 Cernavoda new projects; revamping of unit 1; regulating, research and development; exchanges between research labs and universities; and personnel training. The cooperation agreement was signed in December 2020 by both nations. The entry into force of this agreement allows development of the civil nuclear program by ensuring technical, regulating, nuclear security and safety expertise. It will contribute implicitly towards enhancing the security, diversity, safety in exploitation, energy and environmental stability of Romania, through re-technologization of Unit 1 and extension of Cernavoda plant capacity.

Main Nuclear Projects in Romania Status:

  • Refurbishment / Life Extension of Unit 1 of Cernavodă NPP: scheduled during 2027-2029 in order to extend its life span with an additional 30 years of safe and efficient operation. As approved by SN Nuclearelectrica SA (SNN) shareholders in February 2022
  • Completion of Cernavodă NPP Units 3 and 4: construction of two additional CANDU 6 type nuclear units in Romania towards decarbonization goals as included in the national energy and climate plan of Romania. The project is estimated at 7.4 billion USD and will be deployed in the framework of a Euro-Atlantic cooperation. Both units are scheduled to be operational by 2031
  • Cernavodă Tritium Removal Facility (CTRF): Using LPCE – CD (Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange – Cryogenic Distillation) technology based on a Romanian prototype, CTRF aims to extract tritium from the heavy water in the moderator. The project will be financed through EBRD with 157.5 million USD out of a 200 million USD total value
  • Production of Cobalt 60 at Cernavodă NPP: SNN is currently performing preliminary studies and pre-feasibility testing in cooperation with a Canadian company in order to produce Cobalt 60 at Cernavodă NPP with large application in the medical field
  • Advanced Lead Fast Reactor European Demonstrator (ALFRED): a generation IV reactor demonstrator developed in the city of Pitesti by a consortium made up of Romanian, Italian and Czech companies
  • Small Modular Reactors: Romania aims to be at the forefront of SMR deployment in Europe. SMRs will be the next wave of nuclear renaissance offering jobs, economic growth and cutting-edge technology, smoothing the transition to net zero emissions. Romanian company Nuclearelectrica signed a Teaming Agreement with American company NuScale in order to advance the deployment of NuScale’s innovative small modular reactor technology. NuScale SMRs are one of the most advanced SMR designs in the world. Romania aims to build six NuScale modules with an overall output of 462 MWe by 2028.


The Ministry of Economy, Entrepreneurship and Tourism recently launched a Modernization Fund program, a key tool for development of investments in energy projects that will provide for improvements in energy efficiency, modernization of energy systems, and the transition to coal-dependent regions targeting those EU Member States with GDP per capita at market prices below 60% of EU average. The fund will be financed by bidding on the market for 2% of the total certificates allocated to Member States through the EU ETS scheme for the period 2021-2030, the amount of which is between € 6.2 and € 9.3 billion.

Renewable energy is a topic within Romania that is growing constantly in popularity and attractiveness, countering declines in terms of renewable energy attractiveness, due to the lack of governmental support and appropriate regulations or support schemes.

Romanian authorities have allocated a budget of €457.7 million ($506 million) for a new renewables procurement exercise. Selected wind and solar projects will be granted rebates ranging from €425,000 to €1.3 million per megawatt installed.

The importance of the energy field for ensuring a more sustainable future is reflected extensively in the NRPP, mainly through “Section 6: Energy”, where the flagship reforms are found, as well as through sections 5 and 10. These sections include reforms and key measures for decarbonization of energy and transport sectors, reforms aimed at gradually eliminating coal-fired electricity production by 2032, to enable the potential of energy from renewable sources and energy rehabilitation, sustainable mobility, management water and waste and biodiversity, which are essential steps for decarbonization and the consolidation of the circular economy, as well as to develop a favorable legislative and regulatory framework for the technologies of the future (e.g. for hydrogen).

Investments in energy from renewable sources, the energy efficiency of public and private buildings and their efficient use of resources and the environment, as well as specific measures on the circular economy will also promote green transition to key sectors of the economy. The plan also includes considerable investments in the energy efficiency of public and private buildings and their efficient use of resources, as provided for in Sections 5 - Renovation Wave and 10 - Local Fund for Green and Digital Transition; and measures to facilitate private investment in industrial sectors, provided for under Section 6 - Energy.

The Environment Fund has continued to fund the following programs for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES): (i) Program for the installation of photovoltaic panel systems for electricity generation, in order to cover consumption needs and deliver a surplus to the national grid, for the metropolitan region of Bucharest - Ilfov; and (ii) Photovoltaic Systems Program for Isolated Households - Individual Beneficiaries. The promotion of RES continues through green certificates. ANRE has established the mandatory annual quota for the purchase of green certificates, considering an average impact for the final consumer of maximum 15.2 USD / MWh starting with 2022. In addition, ANRE has developed a new regulatory framework to facilitate the marketing of energy produced in renewable power plants with an installed electric power of up to 400 kW per place of consumption belonging to consumers and delivered in the electricity network to electricity suppliers with whom they have concluded contracts for the supply of electricity.

Thus, the quantitative compensation of prosumers with installations with a power of up to 200 kW will be granted until December 31, 2030, in the context of measures and actions related to achieving the commitments on the share of renewable energy in 2030 specified in the National Energy Plan and Climatic changes.

Wind Energy

Romania could get another 1.4 GW of wind farms in the next five years; the investments being estimated as much as EUR 2 billion. According to media outlets, it would be the second wave of investments in wind energy in this country. In the period 2009-2014, Romania attracted investments of over 4.8 billion USD in the sector. Currently, the country has about 3 GW, which covers about 10% of electricity consumption. Wind projects with an installed capacity of 307 MW have grid connection contracts with Romania’s transmission system operator Transelectrica. The documents guarantee that power plants will be connected to the transmission system when the construction is finished. In addition to the 307 MW with connection contracts, another 460 MW have obtained technical approvals for connection. One of those projects is a 363 MW plant under development by a Romanian company. 

Photovoltaic (PV) Energy

According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Romania had installed about 1.38 GW of solar at the end of 2019. The country is expected to become European Union’s wind and photovoltaic hub, with such power plants installed throughout the country. Soon, Banat, Satu Mare and Moldova will be the regions with the most significant investments in these fields. The only utility-scale PV projects currently under development are those of Romania’s Complexul Energetic Oltenia (CE Oltenia), which wants to deploy 310 MW at one of its coal power facilities. The company is now seeking consultants to conduct feasibility studies to build four facilities, which are part of its restructuring efforts and decarbonization plan. According to Romanian media sources, four projects will span 595 hectares, and their capacities will range from 60 MW to 95 MW. Recently, a group of international investors announced that they are planning to build a 700 MW solar park, the largest in the country, in Arad County, western Romania. The PV plant will be built on an area of 1,079 hectares and will require an investment of approx. 740 million USD.

It is mentioned that the Romanian authorities will grant a rebate of 794,000 USD per MW installed to PV projects with a power of 200kW to 1MW and of 450,000 USD per megawatt installed to solar arrays over 1MW. For wind power, the rebates are 1.37 million USD and 688,000 USD for the two project typologies, respectively.

Selected projects will have to begin commercial operations in June 2024. Interested developers have until May 31, 2023, to submit their project proposals.

Romania is also supporting rooftop PV deployment via the government’s Casa Verde Fotovoltaice (green PV home) scheme for residential solar installations, under the national net metering regime. According to the latest statistics from the International Renewable Energy Agency, Romania had 1.39 GW of solar installed by the end of 2020.

Wind Energy and PV Energy

According to Transelectrica, the first ten wind and solar projects approved through 2022 have a total capacity of nearly 1,720 MW and would require investments of approximately 1.36 billion USD.

National Energetic Agency (ANRE) informs that in Romania, the transition from a target of 24 percent in 2020 for the share of electricity produced from renewable sources in total gross final energy consumption, to a target of 30.7 percent (proposed) in 2030 is equivalent to an increase of more than 140 percent in the share of electricity production capacity from renewable sources, compared to the production capacity installed in the period 2010-2016 (of about 4785 MW) Romania now has approximately 1,300 MW of solar and approximately 3,000 MW of wind capacity.

The largest approved project to date, for investments in the second wave of green energy, received the ATR (or technical approval for grid connection) in last half of 2021. It is a 441 MW wind farm with a 370 million USD investment and is in Buzau. The project company is called First Look Solutions. In comparison, the largest wind farm currently in operation is owned by Czech interests, with a net capacity of 260 MW.

The use of Regenerable Sources of Energy (“RES”) is also promoted through a Regional Operational Program (ROP) for installation of photovoltaic systems for electricity production, in relation to covering the necessary consumption and delivery of surplus in the national network. This covers the seven development regions of Romania, so is expected to finance 11,344 contracts with final beneficiaries, with an eligible value of approx. 111 million USD (of which ERDF 94.2 million USD). Seven financing contracts were signed with the Administration of the Environmental Fund, with an eligible value of 111 million USD (of which ERDF 94.2 million USD). Until March 18, 2022, the value of payments made by MA ROP was 29 million USD.

Biomass nergy

The European Union’s energy strategy for 2020 established that up to 50% of renewable energy produced by EU member states will derive from biomass, by burning feedstock from agricultural, forestry and livestock residues, and from municipal or industrial biodegradable waste. Studies conducted in Romania reveal the potential in the field of green energy production at 65% via biomass, 17% from wind energy, and 12% through solar energy; along with 4% micro hydropower, and 2% geothermal.

In terms of energy potential of biomass, Romania’s territory is split into eight regions: Danube Delta (Biosphere Reserve), Dobrogea, Moldavia, Carpathian Mountains (Eastern, Southern, Apuseni), Transylvanian Plateau, Western Plain, Carpathians Hills and South Plain. Even if the production of energy based on biomass would be extremely profitable, a big issue is represented by the high costs necessary to install and commission a single biomass-fired cogeneration plant. The initial investment is high, while waste collection is, at the same time, a costly activity. Several dozen MW (just over 30) installed in biomass power plants do not cover even 1% of national consumption. So, biomass electricity production is a potential that needs to be capitalized on.

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Mihaela Dodoiu