EU - Country Commercial Guide
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In 2015, the European Union, launched the Digital Single Market Strategy, of which e-commerce was a priority area.  Since then, the Electronic Commerce Directive has provided rules for online services in the European Union, including requiring providers to abide by regulations in the country where they are established (the country of origin); to meet certain consumer protection rules, such as indicating contact details on their website, clearly identifying advertising, and protecting against spam.  The Directive also grants exemptions to liability for intermediates that transmit illegal contact by third parties and for unknowingly hosting content.  The recently adopted Digital Services Act and Digital Markets Act establish additional rules for online services.  The former includes measures to tackle online sales of counterfeit goods and online illegal and harmful content.  The latter sets rules for ‘gatekeeper’ online platforms, aiming to curb unfair practices and promote competition.