Rwanda - Country Commercial Guide
Mining and Minerals
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According to the UNCOMTRADE database, in 2022, Rwanda was a top exporter of tungsten with 31 percent of the total global supply.  The same year, Rwanda had 14 percent of total tin exports to the world.  Rwanda is also a significant exporter of niobium, tantalum, and vanadium with five percent shares in 2022.  Rwandan exports of gold amounted to $555.7 million the same year.  New ownership of a gold refinery in Kigali has led to estimated current exports of around $300 million per quarter as of October 2023.

Rwanda also possesses a variety of minerals such as gemstones, silica sands, kaolin, vermiculite, diatomite, clays, limestone, talcum, gypsum, and pozzolan.  Small-scale mining accounts for around 80 percent of the country’s mineral output.  The government is eager to formalize the sector, attract international mining investors, and increase processing of minerals in the country The Rwanda Mining, Gas and Petroleum Board was established in 2017 to coordinate government efforts in these sectors.  Potential investors should note Rwanda is subject to Section 1502 of the U.S. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which includes the 3Ts and gold.

Table: Minerals Sector Profile
Total Local ProductionN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Total Exports$376 million

$783 million


$567.4 million

$124.9 million 


$507.6 million 


$810.5 million 


Total ImportsN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A

Imports from the US


Total Market SizeN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Exchange RatesN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A

Source:  UN Comtrade Database (Commodity codes 26 and 71)

Note:  The most important sub-codes are 2609 (Tin Ore), 2611 (Tungsten), 2614 (Titanium), 2615 (Nobium-Tantalum), and 7108 (gold).  For code description and other details, visit UN commodity trade database

Leading Sub-Sectors

  • Tin Ore
  • Tungsten
  • Nobium-Tantalum
  • Gold


  • Mineral exploration (Tin, Tungsten, Coltan, and gemstones)
  • Industrial mining equipment
  • Targeting value-addition
  • Partnerships with local mining companies
  • Trade in minerals
  • Smelting

The Rwanda Mining, Petroleum and Gas Board oversees regulation and mining licensing.

The Rwanda Development Board negotiates mining license contracts on behalf of the Government of Rwanda and the Rwanda Mining Association can provided further resources.