Market Intelligence
Fertilizers Ghana Sub-Saharan Africa

Ghana Fertilizer

This report updates a March 2022 CS Ghana market intelligence report on Ghana’s fertilizer market

Status of Market

Ghana remains highly dependent upon imports of inorganic fertilizer, with strong use of Nitrogen/Phosphorous/Potassium (NPK). Traditionally, most fertilizers were subsidized under the Government of Ghana’s Planting for Food in Jobs program. Ghana imported about 239,000 metric tons of fertilizer in 2021. However, in years prior to surges in international prices, the Ghanaian Ministry of Food and Agriculture procured approximately 250,000 – 350,000 tons annually and the Ghana Cocoa Board procured 100,000 tons annually. 

The start of 2022 saw a perfect storm of international supply shortages and high international prices. This was exacerbated by the Ghanaian Government’s reduction of subsidies and payment arrears to suppliers due to budget constraints.  

As of September 2022, supply concerns in the Ghanaian fertilizer market have eased to a significant extent, but the price of the available fertilizer remains out of reach for many Ghanaian farmers. The precipitous depreciation of the Ghanaian currency, the cedi (especially vis a vis the U.S. dollar) in 2022, makes imported fertilizer even more expensive on the local market. The high cost of finance — with interest rates exceeding 30% in many cases — creates a further challenge for farmers to purchase fertilizer. Delivery to farmers in remote areas remains a constraint, as well. 

The agricultural sector has seen some market responses to these high costs, including the use of less fertilizer, farming less land, and farmers opting to shift from growing maize to soya, which requires less fertilizer.  

Ghana has accelerated its efforts to move beyond blending imported fertilizer to producing it domestically. Moroccan phosphate producer OCP is working with the Government of Ghana to construct an industrial fertilizer complex in Ghana that would combine Moroccan phosphorus inputs with Ghanaian natural gas, to produce ammonia, urea, di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), and NPK. Feasibility studies for the plant — which is estimated to have a capacity of one million tons annually — are complete. However, the plant has not yet been built. Meanwhile, domestic production of organic fertilizer from inputs such as waste from the cocoa industry is growing, albeit slowly. 

Market Players

There are 10 major importers and wholesalers on the market, 100 distributors, and more than 3,800 retailers. Several NGOs have also formed to help alleviate the constraints on the market and are possible partners for U.S. suppliers. The following companies maintain blending facilities within Ghana with a combined capacity of 6,300 MT per day: Chemico, Macrofertil, Omnifert, Yara, Glofert, and AMG. U.S. exports compete with these companies, many of which have their own brand of fertilizers and are plugged into the Planting for Food and Jobs subsidy program.

Tariff Environment

Imported NPK that is not part of the official Planting for Food and Jobs fertilizer program is subject to a 5% MFN import tariff, plus other duties and charges that can add an additional 12% of the cost, insurance, and freight (CIF) value of the good.  

Business Opportunity

Cost-competitive U.S. suppliers of inorganic and organic fertilizers may be able to enter the market with the right local distributor/partner to register products with regulatory authorities and conduct field trials for demonstration purposes. The ability to provide payment terms or financing packages would provide suppliers an edge, as well. 

For more information on finding local partners and exploring the fertilizer market in Ghana and opportunities for U.S. suppliers, contact Victoria Agbai, Commercial Specialist at the U.S. Embassy in Accra, Ghana:; Tel: +233(0)30-274-1870.  For an overview of the Ghanaian market please visit