Ghana Fertilizer Market
While global and local economic factors are altering the fertilizer market in Ghana, there remains an urgent need for price competitive fertilizer.
The United States has traditionally been a significant supplier to Ghana of fertilizer, exporting $11.4 million in 2020, although this dropped to $4.7 million in 2021. While global and local economic factors are altering fertilizer market dynamics in Ghana, there remains an urgent need for price competitive fertilizer. U.S. suppliers of traditional chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer, as well as agriculture technology solutions that offer alternatives to traditional chemical fertilizer have prospects. Commercial Service Ghana is seeking interested U.S. companies that would like to pursue these opportunities and can assist to introduce new traders and new products to major end users and government authorities.
The main crops grown in Ghana requiring fertilizer are cassava, rice, maize, millet, rice, and yams. Ghana imports almost all of the fertilizer it consumes and was the largest importer of fertilizer in West Africa in 2020 with 26% of all imports. Ghana’s imports of all types of fertilizers were $173 million in 2019, $109 million in 2020, and $79 million in 2021.
Ghana uses primarily nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK), urea, sulfate of ammonia and organic compost. Ghana frequently imports bulk fertilizer and blends it in domestic facilities. Organic compost comprises only 1% of consumption and there is low production domestically; mainly is it a by-product of the domestic cattle and poultry industry.
Ghana’s 2020 global imports of fertilizer were in the following types and volumes:
• Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK) - 300 million MTs
• Urea - 90 million MTs
• Muriate of Potash (MOP) MOP - 56 million MTs
• Sulfate of Ammonia (SoA) - 44 million MTs
• Triple superphosphate (TSP) - 35 million MTs
• Organic - 219 MTs
• Other - 94 million MTs in
The Ghanaian fertilizer market is price sensitive. The rise in the global freight-on-board (FOB) cost of imported fertilizer by 200-300% in 2021 negatively affected the market. Russia emerged as a major supplier to Ghana in 2021 but is now threatening to cut off supply globally. Ghanaian farmers’ ability to purchase fertilizer is additionally negatively affected by the depreciation of the Ghanaian cedi versus the dollar by 15% since the start of 2022.
The fertilizer import market, as currently structured, is highly dependent upon government subsidies, which are in a state of flux. As part of its Planting for Food and Jobs agricultural input subsidy program, the Government of Ghana has provided subsidies for farmers’ and large industry associations’ purchase of fertilizer. By some estimates, 80% of the local fertilizer market is subsidized to some extent. Yet, even with the price subsidy, many smallholder farmers still could not afford the cost of imported fertilizer last year. Price subsidy levels are currently decreasing. See the U.S. Foreign Agricultural Service’s March 17, 2022 GAIN report on Ghana’s Agriculture Subsidy Program for more details on the status of government subsidies for fertilizer.
For more information on exploring the fertilizer market in Ghana and opportunities for U.S. suppliers, contact Victoria Agbai, Commercial Specialist at the U.S. Embassy in Accra, Ghana: email@example.com; Tel: +233(0)30-274-1870. For an overview of the Ghanaian market please visit www.trade.gov/Ghana