Angola holds abundant untapped oil and gas resources estimated at 9 billion barrels of proven crude oil reserves and 11 trillion cubic feet of proven natural gas reserves. The country currently produces approximately 1.16 million barrels of oil per day (bpd) but hit as high as 2 million barrels of oil per day (bpd) by 2010 during prosperous oil production years. The petroleum industry is key and accounts for almost 75 percent of the country’s revenues. It records an estimated 17,9billion cubic feet of natural gas production from associated oil. Yet, Angola has not unleashed the full potential of its hydrocarbon sector. Although the Angolan Government implemented a series of reforms by 2017 to boost the most important sector of its economy, industry players continued to urge a thorough restructuring of the sector .
As an initial step, the Government of Angola transferred concessionaires’ rights from national oil company Sonangol to the National Agency for Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels (ANPG), through Presidential Decree No. 49/19 of February 6, 2019. Sonangol began restructuring to focus on its core upstream, midstream and downstream businesses as operator. Through the Institute for the Management of State’s Assets and Participation (IGAPE) – governed by the Ministry of Finance – National Oil Company Sonangol divested of its non-core business units.
The National Agency for Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels (ANPG) inherited responsibilities to regulate upstream operations, including to award concessions blocks for onshore and offshore exploration and production fields.
A Presidential Task Force comprised of industry players assisted in the amendment of three presidential decrees and in the enactment of two new laws, to maximize existing assets for growth.
To stimulate investments in new assets as investments in the sector were stalled, the National Agency for Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels (ANPG) planned a six-year licensing round – from 2019 to 2025 - to auction and license a total of 50 new blocks on the Congo, Namibe, Benguela, Etosha, Okavango and Kassange basins.
The new Private Investment Law 10/21 of April 22, 2021 (amended from Law 10/18 of June 26, 2018) also provides several new fiscal incentives to spur investments, including the Competition Law 5/18 of May 10, 2018, which all paved the way for a more inviting investment climate.
With respect to the rich geological heritage, the Government conceived strategic management plans and released additional decrees, as such Presidential Decree No. 52/19, of February 18, 2019, approving the General Strategy for the Allocation of Petroleum Concessions for the period 2019–2025; and Presidential Decree No. 282/20, of October 27, 2020, approving Angola’s Hydrocarbon Exploration Strategy 2020–2025.
The refining of crude oil and distribution of its derivatives remain well below domestic demand. Angola is a leading producer in the continent – and has recently surpassed longtime leaders Nigeria and Algeria – yet is heavily dependent on imported refined petroleum. The country spends over $ 2 billion on petroleum imports annually.
To address this imbalance, the Government of Angola is prioritizing refinery development, with upgrades to the country’s only operating facility in Luanda as well as three new projects in the pipeline. The aim is to attain sufficiency in refined hydrocarbons through public-private partnerships (PPPs), with private companies financing investments in midstream projects.
The Agency for Private Investment and Promotion of Exportations (AIPEX) is the official government office responsible for contract signing between the Government of Angola and private companies in case of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) after approval of projects by the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Petroleum and fiscalization by regulatory Agency ANPG. The Agency for Private Investment and Promotion of Exportations (AIPEX) was created through Presidential Decree 81/18 of March 19, 2018, to attract FDI to Angola and promote Angolan exports. This regulatory agency is governed by the Ministry of Economy and Planning.
Angola’s oil and gas sector business environment remains one of the most difficult to navigate even after policy changes had been introduced into the sector. Immense industry barriers and macroeconomic threats persist, and hamper even reputable multinationals and the smartest local company willing to enter the sector.
The Angolan petroleum sector continues to impose many restrictions and barriers to investors and operators, hindering most potential investments . Most international companies – even local companies - find it challenging to conduct business in the oil and gas sector in Angola.
As a result, the sector has witnessed substantial downsizing and withdrawal of petroleum service companies, contractors, operators, investors, with some businesses closing operations. Most SMEs cannot access oil and gas sector investments. Robustness and stamina are required to maintain a foothold in Angola.
Industry players emphasize the need for a more competitive business environment with reduced production costs and increased efficiencies.
Very difficult to navigate without key connections.
Angola’s business culture relies on connections, recommendations, and word of mouth. If a businessperson or a company is not recommended by a renowned person or high-profile individual, it can hinder the advancement of even the best projects.
Extremely high operating costs that inhibit profits for private companies
Angola’s high production costs, which average US$ 40 per barrel, chase out the entry of new players and limit new investments. Industry players are increasingly pressured to reduce production costs.
Ongoing restrictions on foreign exchange
Much has changed regarding both the availability and transferability of foreign exchange. Many companies in the past had difficulties repatriating their dividends to their headquarters, having significant amounts stagnating in Angolan commercial banks and depreciating gradually as the exchange rate between Angolan Kwanzas and foreign exchanges, in particular U.S. dollars fluctuated considerably.
The Foreign Exchange Law for the Oil Industry No. 2/2012 of January 13, 2012, determined a specific foreign exchange regime applicable to the payment of goods, services and capital operations related to the petroleum sector. Petroleum companies operating in Angola – resident and non-resident – are still required to process payments through local banks and in the local currency (Angolan Kwanzas). “Consortium contracts” between international and Angolan-based service providers and “tripartite agreements” through commercial banks are mechanisms that can provide oil operators with some flexibility in foreign exchange payment but require the National Concessionaire, Angolan Petroleum, Gas and Biofuels Agency (ANPG) and Central Bank approvals.
In December 2019, the Central Bank (BNA) liberalized the foreign exchange regime issuing Circular 13/19 authorizing the international oil companies (IOC) to sell dollars to Angolan commercial banks. Investors can now make transfers in either local currency or foreign exchange. Now transfers can be made by working with a commercial bank, assuming there are sufficient funds and companies can show their taxes to Angola are paid.
Bureaucracy in contract signing and renewal from former Concessionaire Sonangol
The slow process within former concessionaire – state owned company Sonangol – to approve projects puts a drag on the way the oil and gas sector was conducted. Constant impediments and frequent delays in signing contracts and renewing contracts, validating investment appraisals, impeded additional investments in mature fields, etc. resulted in the natural decline of crude production and a drop of daily outputs.
Difficulties in securing financing from financial institutions on Projects for Angola
Private companies, and specifically operators, needed additional financial resources to inject into their operations to maximize and boost field extraction of crude oil and natural gas. The lack of consistency by the concessionaire prevented companies from securing guarantees to renew or request loans or equities from financial institutions.
Angola’s roads, railways and imports are underdeveloped. The transportation of manpower and goods by air to the enclaved Cabinda province, north of Angola, increases the cost of operations. There is no road linking Angola mainland to Cabinda through the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as they are separated by the Congo River, which at some points is difficult to navigate.
However, in 2022 the Government of Angola created a link between Luanda, Soyo and Cabinda by ferry, which should assist in improving transfer of manpower, goods and services.
Some manpower moves by helicopters to the basins southward, and an improved ferry and road infrastructure should speed the process of transfer between facilities and different operating points.
Excessive living costs
Angola is a moderately expensive country to live in. From housing, transportation, education, healthcare and other type of services it is almost unaffordable for many. Companies must pay high salaries to expatriates to compensate for the exorbitant living costs. In the meantime, there is a need to accommodate Angolan manpower on benefits and compensation plans in the absence of widespread welfare schemes.
Presidential Decree No. 271/20, of October 20, 2020 – revoking Ministerial Order No. 127/03, of November 25, 2003 – shapes the Angolan petroleum Local Content Framework. The new regulation imposes the introduction of a local content clause in all contracts between private companies and the Concessionaire ANPG.
The inclusion of the annual human resources development plan is mandatory, as well as a detailed training program, transfer of know-how and technology to the local workforce. Failure to comply with this obligation constitutes an administrative offence punishable by a fine corresponding to a minimum amount in kwanzas equivalent to US$ 50,000 and a maximum amount equivalent to US$ 200,000. As a result of Angola’s costly business environment, these investment requirements pose an additional hurdle for FDI and put out of reach for many, especially SMEs, the fiscal incentives offered by the government.
Upstream Crude Oil and Natural Gas
The Angolan oil and gas upstream market is expected to record a growth of more than 1.5 percent during the forecast period 2022-2027. The COVID-19 pandemic affected the market severely, with a major decline in the demand for crude oil. This made upstream activities economically unviable.
Meanwhile, the market is expected to recover now that the restrictions imposed to control the pandemic are eased and some industry reforms were implemented. Factors such as increased government focus on the development of crude oil and natural gas assets coupled with the discovery of new reserves are likely to drive market demand during the forecast period. Significant potential in Angola’s offshore crude and natural gas deposits is likely to present significant opportunities over the coming years. The recent hike in crude oil prices above US$ 100 has also benefitted Angola’s economy and finances. The national budget for 2022 was based on a US$ 59 per barrel price. At the same time, the shift toward renewable energy sources for energy generation could pose a threat to the forecasted market growth.
The natural gas industry requires significant investment to capture its full economic potential. The 2018 gas law - Presidential Decree No. 7/18 of May 18, 2018 - provides an enabling framework to maximize the value of Angolan natural gas, given its considerable proven natural gas reserves. Most of the country’s natural gas production is associated with oil. When not flared or reinjected into wells, the natural gas feeds the Angola LNG plant located in Soyo.
Upstream Procurement and Tenders
Major procurements are generally secured through a public tendering regime or direct negotiation - Presidential Decree No. 86/18 of April 2, 2018, with technical and financial reviews by ANPG. The licensing bid round for blocks are governed by Presidential Decree No. 52/19 of February 18, 2019. The oil rich continental shelf off the Angolan coast is divided into 50 blocks but the number of blocks is expected to double with the auctioning of new blocks from 2019 to 2025 by ANPG.
The first round of bids occurred in September 2019 and included 10 blocks: 9 from the Namibe basin and 1 from the Benguela basin. The blocks (11, 12, 13, 27, 28, 29, 41, 42 and 43) located in the Namibe basin hold post and pre-salt potentials, while block 10 in the Benguela basin is in shallow waters. Alongside these blocks, exploration data comprised of high-definition magnetic data, 2D and 3D seismic data will also be auctioned.
As the result of the 2019 licensing round, ANPG awarded Blocks 27, 28, and 29 in the Namibe basin out of the 10 blocks. Sonangol was awarded the license to operate Block 27 with a 35 percent stake. The remaining 65 percent is open to interested parties. ENI was awarded an exploration and production contract for Block 28, located in the Namibe deep water basin. ENI will operate the block with a 60 percent stake while Sonangol P&P will be a partner with a 20 percent stake. The remaining 20 percent is open to interested parties. The operations of Block 29 were awarded to Total, which holds a 46 percent interest. Equinor, Sonangol P&P and BP, each hold a 24.5 percent, 20 percent, and 9.5 percent. stake respectively.
The ANPG announced the tender for the concession of 9 onshore blocks in December 2020. The tender officially launched in April and by July, the ANPG had received 45 offers from 15 companies, totaling more than US$ 1 billion.
In 2023, the agency will grant licenses in onshore and in interior basins to 12 blocks: Etosha, Okavango and Kassange. Finally, in 2025 more than 11 blocks will be auctioned in pre-salt fields.
Upstream Activities and Market Players
Major international oil exploration and production companies active in Angola include Total, with 41 percent market share, Chevron with 26 percent market share, Exxon Mobil with 19 percent market share, and BP with 13 percent market share. Other international players include ENI and Equinor. Sonangol also operates through its subsidiary Sonangol E&P.
Ultra-deep-water projects are being pursued by Total in Block 32 (US$ 16 billion Kaombo project expected to peak at 230,000 bpd), and BP’s “Pluto, Saturn, Venus and Mars” (PSVM) project in Block 31 (US$14 billion). U.S. company MODEC supplied an accommodation vessel to support the hook-up operations on BP’s PSVM project. Other offshore projects include the start-up of ENI’s new production wells in the Vandumbu and the Mpungi fields in Block 15/06, totaling an overall output increase of 170,000 bpd.
Onshore activities are very limited. SOMOIL, a privately-owned company, was planning to produce around 5,000 bpd in Soyo, in northern Angola, but operations have been delayed. Onshore blocks in the Kwanza basin were offered in late 2015, but final awards were cancelled, and the blocks should be re-bid in the near term.
U.S. contractors active in the Angolan upstream market include Halliburton; Baker Hughes, a GE Company; FMC Technologies; Oceaneering; Weatherford; and Schlumberger, just to name a few. Other countries supplying technology and providing services and investing in Angola include the UK, Norway, France, Italy, Korea and China. Korean exports to Angola concentrate on vessels and offshore platforms while Chinese exports focus on low-cost equipment and commodity inputs such as pipes.
Midstream: Refining activities
Sonangol announced plans to upgrade the Luanda facility through the installation of two additional processing units as well as other utilities and offsites, with EPC contractor, KT-Kinetics Technology responsible for the engineering, procurement and construction services for the upgrade. The upgrade – estimated to cost US$ 235 million – will enable the refinery to increase gasoline production four-fold, from 280 tons per day to approximately 1,100 tons per day. The unit is expected to reduce the market deficit by 20 percent when operational in 2022.
The single existing oil refinery in Luanda with installed capacity of 65,000 barrels per day (bpd) is operated by Italian oil company ENI, under a joint venture agreement with state-owned company Sonangol Refinarias (Sonaref). The joint venture was formed to modernize and increase installed capacity and current output levels of 65,000 barrels per day (bpd). ENI promoted an international public tender and awarded a contract to Italian company KT - Kinetics Technology.
The second unit, a topping facility in Cabinda is managed by Chevron and has 16,000 barrels per day (bpd) of capacity production. In June 2019, a contract for the expansion of the Cabinda refinery was awarded to United Shine consortium, a joint venture between United Shine (90 percent) and Sonangol (10 percent) and was expected to increase output levels to 60,000 barrels per day (bpd) by end-2021. The contract was subsequently rescinded and awarded to Gemcorp a London based asset management company.
The Cabinda refinery comprises a US$ 920 million plant developed by a joint venture between Gemcorp (90 percent), and Sonangol subsidiary, Sonaref (10 percent), having a refining capacity of 60,000 bpd. This high conversion refinery will be designed to process jet A1, gasoline, diesel and fuel oil.
In 2019 the Angolan Ministry of Petroleum issued a public tender for the construction of a refinery with a capacity of 100,000 bpd in Soyo, in the Zaire province of Angola. The U.S.-led Quanten Consortium (Quanten, TGT, McDermott, Cisco, Honeywell, KBR, Aurum & Sharp and Atis-Nebest), was awarded the contract in early March 2021. Dubbed the Soyo Refinery, the 100,000-bpd facility will have the third largest refining capacity in the country with a total investment of US$ 3.5 billion.
In August 2016, Sonangol put on hold a second national refinery project that had been in development in the city of Lobito, in Benguela province. U.S. company KBR was awarded the engineering contract. In November 2017, Sonangol announced that it was in the process of identifying and qualifying potential partners for the construction of a national petroleum refinery in Angola, in Lobito. Several proposals include a US$ 8 billion proposal the construction of the petroleum refinery in Benguela province. The Lobito Refinery will have the capacity to produce 200,000 bpd of light and high-quality petroleum products and is scheduled to commence refining in 2025. Private investors own 70 percent of its stake and 30 percent is owned by Sonangol Refinarias (Sonaref).
Sonangol is making progress with the construction of three new facilities that will increase Angola’s refining capacity exponentially, from its current capacity of 65 thousand barrels of oil per day (bpd) to approximately 425 thousand bpd, while the county’s need is estimated at 440 thousand bpd of crude oil by-products. These additional refining capacities are estimated to reduce imports of refined petroleum by US$ 2.7 billion per year, thus generating substantial savings while diversifying the economy. Consequently, it is anticipated that these industry development projects will provide new opportunities for U.S. exports of services and technologies.
Midstream: LNG plant, Processing, Transportation and Storage
The LNG plant in Soyo, in the north of Angola, is structured as a consortium with Sonangol owning 22.8 percent, Chevron owning 26 percent, and Total, BP and ENI each with 13.6 percent. U.S. companies Bechtel and ConocoPhillips provided engineering and construction services respectively for the Soyo LNG facility. The plant started production in 2013 with 5.2 million tons per year capacity and an investment of over US$ 10 billion. Operations were temporarily shut down due to technical difficulties in 2015 and 2016, but then restarted in early 2017.
The LNG plant is a storage and gas processing facility, which is projected to receive 1 billion cubic feet per day of natural gas. However, it is reportedly producing well below its capacity of 5.2 million tons per year due to lower levels of gas sourcing from offshore oil fields through pipelines built under the Congo River. The plant will require continued supply of natural gas to maximize and monetize its full installation capacity. The plant has a capacity of 360,000 cubic meters (cm) of full containment for LNG, LPG, and condensate storage.
The project is expected to facilitate continued offshore oil development while reducing gas flaring and greenhouse gas emissions in Angola, as well as supplying the domestic market with up to 125 million standard cubic feet per day of gas, and service the regional and international markets. Export shipments go to Brazil, China, South Korea and France. The U.S. was a target market, but it has not materialized due to increased U.S. domestic production.
The Ministry of Energy and Water announced Angolan government targets for natural gas to supply 21 percent of Angola’s energy needs by 2025.
Downstream Regulation and Licensing
Executive Decree no. 51/19, of February 6, 2019, approves the Regulatory Institute for Petroleum Derivatives (IRDP) intended to regulate downstream petroleum activities. Among its main mission the regulatory institute monitors costs of imported refined hydrocarbons, pricing of derivatives to consumers, quality and standards of petroleum products marketed in Angola.
The Regulatory Institute for Petroleum Derivatives (IRDP) cooperates with the American Institute for Petroleum (API) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and other entities that drive standardization and quality in the energy sector to enforce international measures on low carbon emissions and environmental protection. President Lourenço has set Angola on a course to gradually transition to clean energy to combat the effects of climate change but believes that the country will keep pursuing fossil fuel projects as the oil and gas sector remains the key economic sector and the primary source of the country’s revenues.
The Regulatory Institute for Petroleum Derivatives (IRDP) regulates the circulation of hazardous goods and products the specifications of which are prohibited as they are dangerous to human health. This includes the enforcement of laboratory tests to petroleum products and chemicals to guarantee safety to human health. The IRDP also regulates the distribution and marketing of gas, gasoline, diesel and lubricants to consumers and the licensing of service stations.
Angola’s single blending unit is owned and operated by Sonangol and supplies the market with mineral and synthetic lubricant oils and greases well below market demand. Base oils and additives are imported from overseas suppliers, which continues to represent export opportunities for U.S. companies.
Aside from Sonangol’s own brand NGOL Lubrificantes, Sonangol is blending automotive lubricant oils for Toyota Motors under TGMO brand in addition to Wodex and Lubmarine for vessels. Other competitors in the lubricant market include Galp, Puma, Castrol, Caltex and Total Lubrificants.
Sonangol is transferring its assets to TotalEnergies Marketing Angola on a joint venture contract to own and operate service stations across Angola. TotalEnergies Marketing Angola will invest US$ 100 million to construct 50 service stations across Angola.
Laws Governing the Oil and Gas Sector
Below is a description of some of the principal laws and presidential decrees governing the oil and gas sector:
- Ministry of Petroleum Order No. 127/03 of November 25, 2003, on Local Content Regulations covers the rules applicable to the supply and provision of petroleum related goods and services.
- Petroleum Activity Law No. 10/04 of November 12, 2004, is the main legal instrument covering the rules to access and conduct petroleum activities in Angola.
- Petroleum Customs Law No. 11/04 of November 12, 2004, is the legal instrument covering the customs regime and incentives specifically applicable to the sector.
- Petroleum Taxation Law No. 13/04 of December 24, 2004, provides the taxation framework applicable to petroleum activities (taxes, rates, deductions).
- Decree 38/09 of August 14, 2009, establishes the rules and procedures to be followed in oil operations (including upstream oil prospecting, research, evaluation, development and production activities), in accordance with the principles of safety, hygiene and health, based on Angolan laws, as well as the commonly accepted practices within the oil industry.
- Angolan Oil and Gas Foreign Exchange Law for the Oil Industry No. 2/2012 of January 13, 2012, determines a specific foreign exchange regime applicable to the payment of goods, services and capital operations related to the petroleum sector.
- Presidential Decree 190/12 of August 24, 2012, establishes a waste management policy that requires oil companies to ensure environmental protection in their operations by meeting zero operational discharge levels.
- Presidential Decree 91/18, of April 10, 2018, establishes the rules and procedures for the abandonment of wells and the decommissioning of oil and gas facilities.
- Presidential Decree No. 86/18 of April 2, 2018, simplifies the control mechanism for petroleum industry operations related to public tenders and procurement. The tender process to award concessions and licenses will be public and will no longer require “pre-qualification” from bidders. The process for approval of contracts with third parties to carry out petroleum operations is simplified: Operators may award contracts for up to US$ 1 million without public tender or approval by national concessionaire ANPG (previous threshold was US$ 250,000).
- Contracts between US$ 1 million and US$ 5 million are subject to public tender but do not need approval by the national concessionaire.
- Contracts exceeding US$ 5 million are subject to both public tender and national concessionaire approval (previous threshold was US$ 750,000).
- Direct award (without public tender) is always permitted in the following cases: in case of an operational emergency, and in case the supply/service can only be sourced from one specific supplier.
- Bids must be submitted in the Portuguese language. If presented in a foreign language, a Portuguese translation must be provided.
- Bids must be opened on the premises of the national concessionaire.
- The national concessionaire must expressly decide on the award recommendation made by the operator (for contracts > US$ 5 million). The operator recommendation is deemed tacitly accepted if no express response is forthcoming.
- Several time periods were extended or reduced (including for bid evaluation and National Concessionaire approval)
Source: (VIEIRA DE ALMEIDA Law Firm, 2018)
- Presidential Decree No. 91/18 passed on April 10, 2018, provides a pathway for dismantling abandoned wells and decommissioning of oil and gas facilities, in accordance with Quality Health Safety and Environment (QHSE) industry best practices. This Presidential Decree addresses mature well abandonment that requires oil field operators to furnish an approved abandonment plan to the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Petroleum to review. It also provides a framework for safeguarding funds for final dismantling operations at the end of an oil well’s economic life.
- Presidential Decree 5/18 of May 18, 2018, establishes the legal regime for additional exploration activities in the development areas of petroleum concessions, revoking the previous Presidential Decree 211/15.
- Presidential Decree No. 6/18 passed on May 18, 2018, established a new fiscal regime for marginal field development- less than 300 million barrels of reserves - or fields not economically viable because of lack of infrastructure. It cuts petroleum tax to 10 percent from 20 percent, while reducing petroleum income tax on marginal fields to 25 percent from 50 percent.
- Presidential Decree No. 7/18 of May 18, 2018, is the first law enacted to regulate natural gas exploration, production, monetization and commercialization. More attractive tax rates are one of the benefits this new gas law will provide. Gas production tax is 5 percent (compared to 10 percent for oil). Gas income tax is 25 percent (same as for oil) for associated gas and 15 percent for non-associated gas when proven reserves are lower than 2 trillion cubic feet. Associated gas fields operators can reinject gas to maximize oil recovery or transfer the surplus to Angola LNG plant if they do not sell it in domestic or international markets.
Marginal Projects: Many oil and gas activities in development areas were suspended when deemed not economically viable. The Government’s intent is to encourage the reactivation of these activities within development areas. Legislation will enhance the oil and gas business environment, providing new guidance on oil and gas operations and processes that include streamlining of work programs. The Government also plans to implement contract and fiscal incentives that will promote operational efficiency in mature and marginal fields.
- Presidential Decree No. 52/19, of February 18, 2019, approved the General Strategy for the Allocation of Petroleum Concessions for the period 2019–2025, establishing the guiding principles for future petroleum concessions, through the identification of critical factors with the objective of ensuring the replacement of reserves to make up for the evident decline in production recorded in recent years.
- Presidential Decree No. 282/20, of October 27, 2020, approved Angola’s Hydrocarbon Exploration Strategy 2020–2025, which envisages boosting and intensifying the replenishment of reserves, with the objective of mitigating the decline in hydrocarbon production, guaranteeing the development of intense exploration activity, as well as ensuring the development of new oil concessions.
The Government of Angola seeks to engage more U.S. firms to compete for multi-billion U.S. dollar projects including exploration and development of oil and gas fields, transportation and storage of petroleum products, refinery construction and associated infrastructure.
Oil and gas equipment
- High quality, cost-saving and operations’ optimization technology solutions (e.g., to lower costs in mature fields)
- Exploration and production equipment and services (e.g., deep and ultra-deep technologies, namely drill ships, floating vessels)
- Environmental protection and monitoring technologies (e.g., sea pollution remediation products)
- Lubricant oils and grease
Oil and gas services
- Seismic data reporting and releasing
- Operations risk insurance
US exports to Angola concentrate in the oil and gas sector, dominated by petroleum industry parts and equipment. Much of the equipment falls into Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) Category 84 – Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances.
U.S. Domestic Exports to Angola (US$ million) - Selected Categories related to the Petroleum Industry
|Total Local Production
|Imports from the US
|Total Market Size
(total market size = (total local production + imports) - exports) Units: US$ millions
|2019 - 2020 Change (%)
|Nuclear Reactors, Boilers, Machinery and Mechanical Appliances
|Parts for Boring or Sinking Machinery
|Filtering or Purifying Machinery
|Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, vats, etc.
|Safety or Relief Valves
|Parts for Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances for pipes, vats, etc.
|Articles of Iron or Steel
|Optical, Measuring, Precision, etc. Instruments/Apparatus
|Instruments/Apparatus for Measuring/Checking Pressure of Liquids or Gas
|Instruments for Measuring or Detecting Ionizing Radiation
Units: US$ millions
Source: US export data - https://dataweb.usitc.gov/