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U.S. Antidumping and Countervailing Duties
Information and Resources for U.S. Trade Remedy Laws and Ongoing Proceedings
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U.S. Antidumping and Countervailing Duties

Important COVID-19 Update: Enforcement and Compliance is temporarily modifying certain requirements for serving documents containing business proprietary information in antidumping and countervailing duty (AD/CVD) cases, to facilitate the effectuation of service through electronic means. The goal is to promote public health and slow the spread of COVID-19. These temporary modifications will be in place until May 19, 2020, unless extended. Please click here to read the complete temporary final rule.

Introduction to AD/CVD

Unfair foreign pricing and government subsidies distort the free flow of goods and adversely affect American business in the global marketplace. Enforcement and Compliance, within the International Trade Administration of the Department of Commerce, enforces laws and agreements to protect U.S. businesses from unfair competition within the United States, resulting from unfair pricing by foreign companies and unfair subsidies to foreign companies by their governments. 

What is Dumping?

Dumping occurs when a foreign producer sells a product in the United States at a price that is below that producer's sales price in the country of origin ("home market"), or at a price that is lower than the cost of production. The difference between the price (or cost) in the foreign market and the price in the U.S. market is called the dumping margin. Unless the conduct falls within the legal definition of dumping as specified in U.S. law, a foreign producer selling imports at prices below those of American products is not necessarily dumping. 

What is a Countervailable Subsidy?

Foreign governments subsidize industries when they provide financial assistance to benefit the production, manufacture or exportation of goods. Subsidies can take many forms, such as direct cash payments, credits against taxes, and loans at terms that do not reflect market conditions. The statute and regulations establish standards for determining when an unfair subsidy has been conferred. The amount of subsidies the foreign producer receives from the government is the basis for the subsidy rate by which the subsidy is offset, or "countervailed," through higher import duties. 

What is an AD/CVD suspension agreement?

The exporters and producers or the foreign government agree to modify their behavior so as to eliminate dumping or subsidization or the injury caused thereby.  Suspension agreements allow Commerce and interested parties to suspend AD or CVD investigations in favor of an agreement (undertaking) that provides for elimination of the unfair pricing or subsidies, or of the injury caused by the imports under investigation.  Suspension agreements may be reached only in the investigation phase of an AD or CVD proceeding.  Suspension agreements are very rare.  There are currently only eight suspension agreements in effect.  Under a suspension agreement, merchandise enters free of AD and CVD cash deposits and assessments, provided the parties meet the requirements of the agreement.

Note: This is for general information purposes only. When interpreting and applying the law, readers should refer to the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1671-1671h, 1673-1673h) and the related regulations in Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

What are the requirements for filing an Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Petition?

A petition is filed by a domestic interested party, including a manufacturer, trade association, or a union within the domestic industry producing the product which competes with the imports to be investigated. The statute requires the petition to have sufficient support of the domestic industry. The statute also requires the petition to contain certain information, including evidence of injury to the domestic industry,, as well as evidence of dumping or unfair subsidization.

Antidumping and countervailing duty trade remedies have been successfully pursued by a variety of domestic industries, including producers of steel, industrial equipment, computer chips, agricultural products, textiles, chemicals, and consumer products. Both Enforcement and Compliance and the International Trade Commission have staff available to assist domestic industries in deciding whether there is sufficient evidence to file a petition for antidumping or countervailing duty investigations. The staff may also assist eligible small businesses with the filing process. 

How can I learn more about filing a petition? 

Contact Enforcement and Compliance's Petition Counseling office at (202) 482-1255 or by e-mail at Petition.Counseling@trade.gov.

Note: This is for general information purposes only. When interpreting and applying the law, readers should refer to the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1671-1671h, 1673-1673h) and the related regulations in Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

What is the role of the International Trade Commission?

The International Trade Commission determines whether the domestic industry is suffering material injury, or threatened with material injury as a result of the imports of the dumped or subsidized products. For further information on the International Trade Commission's injury investigation, see http://www.usitc.gov.

What relief is the end result of an Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Investigation?

If both Commerce and the International Trade Commission make affirmative final findings of dumping and injury, Commerce instructs U.S. Customs and Border Protection to assess duties against imports of that product into the United States. The duties are assessed as a percentage of the value of the imports and are equivalent to the dumping and subsidy margins, described above. For example, if Commerce finds a dumping margin of 35%, U.S. Customs and Border Protection will collect a 35% duty on the entered value of the product at the time of importation into the United States in order to offset the amount of dumping. Information on the U.S. Customs and Border Protection may be found at https://www.cbp.gov

How long does it take for Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Orders to be issued?

If both the International Trade Commission and Enforcement and Compliance make affirmative preliminary determinations (within 190 days of initiation of the antidumping investigation, or 130 days for countervailing duty investigation) importers are required to post a bond or cash to cover an estimated amount for the duties which would be collected in the event that an AD or CVD order is issued upon the completion of the investigations. Typically, the final phases of the investigations by Enforcement and Compliance and the International Trade Commission are completed within 12 to 18 months of initiation.

Note: This is for general information purposes only. When interpreting and applying the law, readers should refer to the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1671-1671h, 1673-1673h) and the related regulations in Title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

Additional AD/CVD Resources

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Reference Resources
Do you need additional information to assist you in participating in a proceeding?
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ACCESS
Do you want to review or file documents on the record of an AD or CVD proceeding?
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Products Subject to AD/CVD Duties
Do you want to know what products are currently subject to AD and CVD duties?
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AD/CVD Duty Payments
Do you have questions regarding an AD/CVD duty bill or money owed? U.S. Customs and Border Protection can help.

Other Information


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File a Petition

Are you a U.S. producer competing against unfair foreign imports?  Our AD CVD petition counseling team can help you understand your options under the U.S. trade remedy laws and provide guidance on how to file an AD and/or CVD petition for investigation.

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Suspension Agreements

Suspension agreements allow Commerce and interested parties to suspend AD or CVD investigations in favor of an agreement (undertaking) that provides for elimination of the unfair pricing or subsidies, or of the injury caused by the imports under investigation.  There are currently eight AD CVD suspension agreement in effect.