Discusses the most common methods of payment, such as open account, letter of credit, cash in advance, documentary collections, factoring, etc. Includes credit-rating and collection agencies in this country. Includes primary credit or charge cards used in this country
Because of the protection it offers to the U.S. exporter and the Japanese importer, an irrevocable letter of credit (L/C) payable at sight is commonly used for settlement of international transactions. As large Japanese general trading companies often serve as intermediaries to small and medium-sized companies, L/Cs are often issued in their name rather than in the name of the end user of the product. With the trading company taking on the risk of the transaction, the U.S. firm is protected from the possible bankruptcy of the smaller company.
Another payment option is the use of documentary collection or open account with international credit insurance that, unlike the letter of credit, allows the importer's line of credit to remain open. At the same time, this option protects the exporter if the buyer goes bankrupt or cannot pay. International credit insurance can be obtained from the Export-Import Bank of the United States or private insurers.
The promissory note (yakusoku tegata) is a payment method widely used in Japan but is sometimes unfamiliar to U.S. companies. Promissory notes are IOUs with a promise to pay at a later date, typically 90 to 120 days. Banks will often provide short-term financing through discounting and rollover of notes. Factoring and other forms of receivables financing (whether with or without recourse) are not common in Japan, and more conservative businesspeople find such arrangements a violation of the “relationship” between buyer and seller. It should be noted that it is not uncommon in Japan for the buyer to request and be granted an extension of the term of the tegata if there are cash-flow problems.
Credit rating agencies in Japan